Knowledge of statistical power is essential for sampling design and data evaluation when testing for genetic differentiation. Yet, such information is typically missing in studies of conservation and evolutionary genetics, most likely because of complex interactions between the many factors that affect power. powsim is a 32-bit Windows/DOS simulation-based computer program that estimates power (and α error) for chi-square and Fisher's exact tests when evaluating the hypothesis of genetic homogeneity. Optional combinations include the number of samples, sample sizes, number of loci and alleles, allele frequencies, and degree of differentiation (quantified as FST). powsim is available at http://www.zoologi.su.se/~ryman.