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Keywords:

  • CHD1;
  • Hawaiian birds;
  • PCR sexing;
  • po’o-uli;
  • Z/W variation

Abstract

Sequence information from 28 CHD1 gene fragments reveals that a primary source of variability in CHD1-W genes is a variable intron microsatellite; a single-codon deletion was found in the 3′ exon in one species. Sequence variation of CHD1-Z genes was detected in males that altered polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment length. Three sets of CHD1-based primers were evaluated for sex determination in 12 endemic and 8 alien Hawaiian species, including one of the last po’o-uli. Combined, these primers provide a reliable means of sex determination in most species (including the po’o-uli), and have produced a valuable reference database for future expanded population-level studies.