Get access

Molecular sexing and sources of CHD1-Z/W sequence variation in Hawaiian birds


Susan I. Jarvi, Fax: 808 974–7693; E-mail:


Sequence information from 28 CHD1 gene fragments reveals that a primary source of variability in CHD1-W genes is a variable intron microsatellite; a single-codon deletion was found in the 3′ exon in one species. Sequence variation of CHD1-Z genes was detected in males that altered polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment length. Three sets of CHD1-based primers were evaluated for sex determination in 12 endemic and 8 alien Hawaiian species, including one of the last po’o-uli. Combined, these primers provide a reliable means of sex determination in most species (including the po’o-uli), and have produced a valuable reference database for future expanded population-level studies.