The first microsatellite markers were isolated from the golden cuttlefish, Sepia esculenta Hoyle. Eleven primer sets were designed to amplify the marker sequences via polymerase chain reaction. The 45–50 individuals from one wild population in the coastal waters of Ehime Prefecture, Japan were used to screen polymorphism in the 11 microsatellite loci. All the microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with the range of alleles from seven to 27 per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.380 to 0.980 and from 0.654 to 0.940, respectively. These marker loci except for one locus showing significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium will be useful for the assessment of genetic variation and population structure of this species.