This study reports the isolation and characterization of microsatellite DNA markers in a mahseer species, Tor tambroides (Pisces, Cyprinidae). Of a total of 14 loci evaluated, 10 were polymorphic in T. tambroides samples, with an average of 2.86 alleles per locus. Deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were observed at one locus and there was no indication of linkage disequilibrium among loci. A high level of cross-amplification among four congeners was achieved, with 12 loci successfully amplifying and 11 loci showing polymorphism in at least one other species. These markers will be a useful resource for population genetic studies and broodstock management of closely related mahseer species.