Fifteen polymorphic dinucleotide and two trinucleotide microsatellite loci were identified in the Anise swallowtail, Papilio zelicaon, from DNA genomic libraries enriched for simple sequence repeats. Allele numbers varied from eight to 29, with an excess of homozygotes observed for nine loci. This homozygosity is a feature of other lepidopteran microsatellites and is probably due to null alleles. Sixteen markers were amplified successfully in other representatives of Papilio with 11 loci retaining polymorphism in at least one species. These results suggest that the microsatellites reported here may be appropriate for measuring population genetic structure in a number of Papilio species.