Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has recently been applied to gain many advantages in molecular genetics. The present study focused on the development of 15 new microsatellite markers with multiplex PCR systems in ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis, an important freshwater fish in Japan. All loci were followed Mendelian inheritance in 27 F1 progeny except for the one locus. The number of alleles per locus ranged from nine to 44 and the observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.680 to 0.980 in 50 unrelated individuals. The results indicate that these new microsatellite markers are useful for studies of linkage mapping and population genetics for the species.