Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed for Dendrocopos medius. Polymorphism was assessed for 27 individuals from the southwesternmost population of this woodpecker species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to seven, with observed heterozygosity values from 0.444 to 0.852. Genotypic frequencies conformed to Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, and no evidence for linkage disequilibrium was observed. Multilocus genotypes resulting from this set of markers will be useful to determine genetic diversity and differentiation within and among habitat patches inhabited by D. medius. Three of the loci were polymorphic for Picoides articus.