• 1
    World Medical Association General Assembly. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. Helsinki, World Medical Association, 2008; National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research. Washington, DC, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1979; International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects. Geneva, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, 2002; The Ethics of Research Related to Healthcare in Developing Countries. London, Nuffield Council on Bioethics, 2002; and the Ethics of Healthcare Related Research in Developing Countries: A Follow-up Discussion Paper. London, Nuffield Council on Bioethics, 2005; Ethical and Policy Issues in International Research: Clinical Trials in Developing Countries. Vol. I. Report and Recommendations of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Washington, DC, United States National Bioethics Advisory Commission, 2001.
  • 2
    B.R. Jeffers. Continuing education in research ethics for the clinical nurse. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing 2002; 33: 265269; United States of America Code of Federal Regulations. 2002; F. Cohn, A. Manetta, A teachable moment: research ethic revisited. American Journal of Obstetric and Gynecology 2003; 188: 2. doi: 10.1067/mob.2003.122; D.L. Rosenstein, F.G. Miller, & D.R. Rubinow. A curriculum for teaching psychiatric research bioethics. Biological Psychiatry 2001; 50: 802808. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01236-7; G. Sponholz. Teaching scientific integrity and research ethics. Forensic Science International 2000; 113: 511154. doi: 10.1016/S0379-0738(00)00267-X.
  • 3
    W.L. Kilama. Equipping Africa's researchers for global collaboration. 2003. Available at; [Accessed 18 July 2012].
  • 4
    Research Triangle Institute Road map for success in international research: strategies for protecting human research subjects globally. Report of workshop. 2005.
  • 5
    S.C. Chima. Regulation of biomedical research in Africa. British Medical Journal 2006; 332: 848851. doi: 10.1136/bmj.332.7545.848.
  • 6
    UNAIDS. UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. 2010. Geneva: UN Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS.
  • 7
    U. E. Dibua. Socio-Economic And Socio-Cultural Predisposing Risk Factors To HIV/AIDS: Case Study Of Some Locations In Eastern Nigeria. The Internet Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2010 Volume 6 Number 2; United Nations General Assembly Special Session. (2010). UNGASS Country Progress Report: Nigeria . 2010. Available at: [Accessed 18 July 2012].
  • 8
    L. Miller, M.O. Folayan, D. Allman, B. Nkala, L.M. Kasirye, L.R. Mingote, G. Calazans, R. Mburu, F. Ntombela & M. Ditmore. How Ethical is Your Clinical Trial. International Journal of Clinical Practice 2010; 64(9): 11791182.
  • 9
    E. McGrory, A. Irvin & L. Heise. Research Rashomon, Lessons From the Cameroon pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Trial Site. Global Campaign for Microbicides, 2009. Available at: [Accessed 18 July 2012]; A. Forbes & S. Mudaliar. Preventing Prevention Trial Failures, A Case Study and Lessons for Future Trials From the 2004 Tenofovir Trial in Cambodia. Global Campaign for Microbicides, 2009. Available at: [Accessed 18 July 2012].
  • 10
    N. Mack, E.T. Robinson, K.M. MacQueen, J. Moffett & L.M. Johnson. The exploitation of ‘Exploitation’ in the tenofovir prep trial in Cameroon: Lessons learned from media coverage of an HIV prevention trial. J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics 2010; 5(2): 319.
  • 11
    M. Ukpong & K. Peterson. Oral Tenofovir Controversy II: Voices From the Field, a Series of Reports of the Oral Tenofovir Trials From the Perspectives of Active Community Voices Engaged on the Field in Cambodia, Cameroon, Nigeria, Thailand and Malawi. New HIV Vaccine and Microbicide Advocacy Society (NHVMAS), 2009. Available at: [Accessed 18 July 2012].
  • 12
    National Bioethics Advisory Commission, 2001, USA; Council for International Organization for Medical Sciences International Ethics Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects. Geneva, Switzerland; 2002.
  • 13
    UNAIDS/AVAC. Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials, 2nd edn . 2011 Geneva: UNAIDS.
  • 14
    Ibid: W.L. Kilama, op. cit. note 2.
  • 15
    M.H. Ditmore & D. Allman. ‘Who is Helsinki?’ Sex workers advise improving communication for good participatory practice in clinical trials. 2011. Health Education Research 26(3): 466475.
  • 16
    A.J. Ajuwon & N. Kass. Outcome of a research ethics training workshop among clinicians and scientists in a Nigerian university. BMC Med Ethics 2008: 24;9: 1. Available at: [Accessed 18 July 2012].
  • 17
    Federal Ministry of Health. The National Code for Health Research Ethics. Version 6.0. Available at: [Accessed 18 July 2012].
  • 18
    “untrained” here refers to REC members who did not participate in a NHVMAS training.
  • 19
    J.G. Brown. Institutional review Boards: their role in reviewing approved research. June 2008. Available at: [Accessed 18 July 2012]; Ibid: A.J. Ajuwon and N. Kass, op. cit. note 13.
  • 20
    Ibid: 1.
  • 21
    A.S. Daar & P.A. Singer. Human capital is key to research ethics. 2002. Available at; [Accessed 18 July 2012].
  • 22
    L. London & G. McCarty. Teaching medical students on the ethical dimensions of human rights: meeting the challenge in South Africa. Journal of Medical Ethics 1998; 24: 257; R.E. Pollock, S.A. Curley & E. Lotzova. Ethics of research training for NIH T32 surgical investigators. Journal of Surgical Research 1995: 247251. doi: 10.1006/jsre.1995.1038; S. Brown & M.W. Kalichman. Effects of training in responsible conduct of research: a survey of graduate students in experimental sciences. Science and Engineering Ethics 1998; 4: 487498. doi: 10.1007/s11948-998-0041-y.