• Biological invasions;
  • Gobiidae;
  • invasive species;
  • monkey goby;
  • Neogobius fluviatilis;
  • Neogobius pallasi;
  • phylogeography;
  • Ponto-Caspian


Aim  Hidden diversity within an invasive ‘species’ can mask both invasion pathways and confound management goals. We assessed taxonomic status and population structure of the monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis across Eurasia, comparing genetic variation across its native and invasive ranges.

Location  Native populations were analysed within the Black and Caspian Sea basins, including major river drainages (Dnieper, Dniester, Danube, Don and Volga rivers), along with introduced locations within the upper Danube and Vistula river systems.

Methods  DNA sequences and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci were analysed to test genetic diversity and divergence patterns of native and introduced populations; phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA cytochrome b and nuclear RAG-1 sequences assessed taxonomic status of Black and Caspian Sea lineages. Multivariate analysis of morphology was used to corroborate phylogenetic patterns. Population genetic structure within each basin was evaluated with mtDNA and microsatellite data using FST analogues and Bayesian assignment tests.

Results  Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear sequences discerned a pronounced genetic break between monkey gobies in the Black and Caspian Seas, indicating a long-term species-level separation dating to c. 3 million years. This pronounced separation further was confirmed from morphological and population genetic divergence. Bayesian inference showed congruent patterns of population structure within the Black Sea basin. Introduced populations in the Danube and Vistula River basins traced to north-west Black Sea origins, a genetic expansion pattern matching that of other introduced Ponto-Caspian gobiids.

Main conclusions  Both genetic and morphological data strongly supported two species of monkey gobies that were formerly identified as subspecies: N. fluviatilis in the Black Sea basin, Don and Volga Rivers, and the Kumo-Manych Depression, and Neogobius pallasi in the Caspian Sea and Volga River delta. Genetic origins of introduced N. fluviatilis populations indicated a common invasion pathway shared with other introduced Ponto-Caspian fishes and invertebrates.