Appendix S1 Summary of study sites, average annual rainfall at the site, irrigation management, dates of visit (dd/mm/yy) and the number of species observed in three of the site’s subsections: N2, E and F2, for (a) wheat sites and (b) olive sites.

Appendix S2 Selection of study sites.

Appendix S3 List of observed species.

Appendix S4 Butterflies of conservation concern observed during surveys, divided into sites, numbers and habitats (N = nature, E = ecotone, F = field).

Appendix S5 Complementarily to Figures 2-4, we present further results based on Sobs (Mao Tau) and Chao Index for a) species richness along the distance gradient (Figure S1); b) the difference in species richness between the natural area and the field along the climatic gradient (Figure S2); and the overall species richness on the site level (pooling all six subsections) along the climatic gradient (Figure S3). In addition, Figure S4 depicts overall species richness per habitat (semi-natural habitat, ecotone, field) and along the climatic gradient, based on based Sobs (Mao Tau).

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