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Keywords:

  • Bioclimate envelope models;
  • climate change;
  • conservation;
  • genetic adaptation;
  • migration;
  • niche models

Abstract

Aim

A number of assumptions underpinning the use of species distribution models to predict biological responses to climate change are violated for temperate and boreal tree species that are widespread, long-lived and genetically adapted to local climate conditions. To address this situation, we propose a methodology to account for the potential effects of genetic structure, adaptive potential and limited migration capacity.

Location

British Columbia, Canada.

Methods

Similar to the widely used ‘no migration’ and ‘unlimited migration’ scenarios, we employ more refined biological response scenarios to evaluate the potential effects of genetic adaptation to local environments and the capacity of species to adapt and migrate. These scenarios are realized by two sets of geographic delineations that partition the species range into multiple populations and that subdivide the study area into smaller landscape units.

Results

In a case study for British Columbia, we demonstrate how the approach can be used to evaluate the adequacy of a reserve system of 906 protected areas to ensure long-term maintenance of forest genetic resources for 48 tree species. We find that between 35% and 85% of locally adapted populations in protected areas are maintained under a median climate change scenario until the end of the century. A sensitivity analysis shows that assumptions about migration and adaptation capacity of species have a major effect on the projected conservation status.

Main conclusions

We propose that the results of species distribution models have practical value for conservation planning if the focus is on maintenance rather than loss of suitable habitat. Accounting for genetic structure, adaptive potential and migration capacity through best-case and worst-case scenarios provide important information to effectively allocate limited resources available for conservation action.