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Fig. S1 Damage check images. (A) First detailed image of study area (<2 ms pixel−1 total). (B) After first stack (O 1s , 70 images at 0.6 ms  pixel−1; ~45 ms total integrated). (C) After all  February 2005 STXM 11 experiments: O 1s stack, Fe stack (53 images at 0.45 ms pixel−1), Mn stack (50 images at 0.3 ms  pixel−1) and Ni stack (35 images at 0.45 ms  pixel−1) ~120 ms total integrated), (D) after C 1s stacks on STXM 532 in February 2005 (85 images at 0.8 ms ~200 ms total integrated), (E) after STXM 11 Si 1s stack in October 2005 [(F) after Si 1s stack (12 images at 0.8 ms ~210 ms total integrated], (F) after additional stacks at S 1s (65 images at 1 ms) and Al 1s edges (136 images at 2 ms). Although the dose changed a lot from edge to edge, all the data recorded required only ~500 ms pixel−1 for total time, integrated over all measurements, a time where only the most radiation sensitive materials (such as PMMA) would show a significant damage.

Fig. S2 (A) Mg 1s spectrum of a Mg-rich region outside of the study area, compared with the spectra of cordierite and fosterite (Trcera et  al., 2008). The inset figure shows the Mg map of this area. (B) OD images at (i) 1303 and (ii) 1315.5 eV of the study area, along with (iii) their difference, and (iv) an overlay of the Mg signal (blue) and the 1303 eV image (gray scale). Aside from a few small particles, no Mg is detected.

Fig. S3 (A) OD image at 637.0 eV, before the onset of Mn 20 absorption. (B) OD image at 639.6 eV [peak of Mn(II) absorption]. (C) Difference.

Fig. S4 (A) Image at 639.6 eV. (B) Image at 642.4 eV taken from the Mn 2p stack, after the non-Mn signal had been subtracted. (C) Spectra extracted from the color regions showing strong differences in different regions of the sample.

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