• Birmingham, P., Helm, J.M., Manner, P.A. and Tuan, R.S. (2008) Simulated joint infection assessment by rapid detection of live bacteria with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. J Bone Joint Surg Am 90, 602608.
  • DeMarco, C.E., Cushing, L.A., Frempong-Manso, E., Seo, S.M., Jaravaza, T.A. and Kaatz, G.W. (2007) Efflux-related resistance to norfloxacin, dyes, and biocides in bloodstream isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51, 32353239.
  • Fihman, V., Hannouche, D., Bousson, V., Bardin, T., Liote, F., Raskine, L., Riahi, J., Sanson-Le Pros, M.J et al. (2007) Improved diagnosis specificity in bone and joint infections using molecular techniques. J Infect 55, 510517.
  • Flekna, G., Stefanic, P., Wagner, M., Smulders, F.J., Mozina, S.S. and Hein, I. (2007) Insufficient differentiation of live and dead Campylobacter jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes cells by ethidium monoazide (EMA) compromises EMA/real-time PCR. Res Microbiol 158, 405412.
  • Hellyer, T.J., DesJardin, L.E., Teixeira, L., Perkins, M.D., Cave, M.D. and Eisenach, K.D. (1999) Detection of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis by reverse transcriptase-strand displacement amplification of mRNA. J Clin Microbiol 37, 518523.
  • Jernaes, M.W. and Steen, H.B. (1994) Staining of Escherichia coli for flow cytometry: influx and efflux of ethidium bromide. Cytometry 17, 302309.
  • Josephson, K.L., Gerba, L.P. and Pepper, I.L. (1993) Polymerase chain reaction detection of nonviable bacterial pathogens. Appl Environ Microbiol 59, 35133515.
  • Kobayashi, N., Bauer, T.W., Tuohy, M.J., Lieberman, I.H., Krebs, V., Togawa, D., Fujishiro, T. and Procop, G.W. (2006) The comparison of pyrosequencing molecular Gram stain, culture, and conventional Gram stain for diagnosing orthopaedic infections. J Orthop Res 24, 16411649.
  • Kobayashi, H., Oethinger, M., Tuohy, M.J., Procop, G.W., Kawamoto, T., Hall, G.S. and Bauer, T.W. (2009) Detection of DNA and mRNA for the assessment of bacterial viability. In: Transactions of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, Abstract no. 1547.
  • Kobayashi, H., Oethiger, M., Tuohy, M.J., Procop, G.W. and Bauer, T.W. (in press) Improved detection of biofilm-formative bacteria by vortexing and sonication: a pilot study. Clin Orthop Relat Res.
  • Lee, J.L. and Levin, R.E. (2006) Use of ethidium bromide monoazide for quantification of viable and dead mixed bacterial flora from fish fillets by polymerase chain reaction. J Microbiol Methods 67, 456462.
  • Lomovskaya, O. and Watkins, W.J. (2001) Efflux pumps: their role in antibacterial drug discovery. Curr Med Chem 8, 16991711.
  • Mariani, B.D., Martin, D.S., Levine, M.J., Booth, R.E. Jr and Tuan, R.S. (1996) The Coventry Award. Polymerase chain reaction detection of bacterial infection in total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res 331, 1122.
  • Nocker, A. and Camper, A.K. (2006) Selective removal of DNA from dead cells of mixed bacterial communities by use of ethidium monoazide. Appl Environ Microbiol 72, 19972004.
  • Nocker, A., Cheung, C.Y. and Camper, A.K. (2006) Comparison of propidium monoazide with ethidium monoazide for differentiation of live vs. dead bacteria by selective removal of DNA from dead cells. J Microbiol Methods 67, 310320.
  • Peersman, G., Laskin, R., Davis, J. and Peterson, M. (2001) Infection in total knee replacement: a retrospective review of 6489 total knee replacements. Clin Orthop Relat Res 392, 1523.
  • Pisz, J.M., Lawrence, J.R., Schafer, A.N. and Siciliano, S.D. (2007) Differentiation of genes extracted from non-viable versus viable micro-organisms in environmental samples using ethidium monoazide bromide. J Microbiol Methods 71, 312318.
  • Rudi, K., Moen, B., Drømtorp, S.M. and Holck, A.L. (2005) Use of ethidium monoazide and PCR in combination for quantification of viable and dead cell in complex samples. Appl Environ Microbiol 71, 10181024.
  • Soejima, T., Iida, K., Qin, T., Taniai, H., Seki, M., Takade, A. and Yoshida, S. (2007) Photoactivated ethidium monoazide directly cleaves bacterial DNA and is applied to PCR for discrimination of live and dead bacteria. Microbiol Immunol 51, 763775.
  • Soejima, T., Iida, K., Qin, T., Taniai, H., Seki, M. and Yoshida, S. (2008) Method to detect only live bacteria during PCR amplification. J Clin Microbiol 46, 23052313.
  • Stoodley, P., Kathju, S., Hu, F.Z., Erdos, G., Levenson, J.E., Mehta, N., Dice, B., Johnson, S. et al. (2005) Molecular and imaging techniques for bacterial biofilms in joint arthroplasty infections. Clin Orthop Relat Res 437, 3140.
  • Stoodley, P., Nistico, L., Johnson, S., Lasko, L.A., Baratz, M., Gahlot, V., Ehrlich, G.D. and Kathju, S. (2008) Direct demonstration of viable Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in an infected total joint arthroplasty. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am 90, 17511758.
  • Tunney, M.M., Patrick, S., Curran, M.D., Ramage, G., Hanna, D., Nixon, J.R., Gorman, S.P., Davis, R.I. et al. (1999) Detection of prosthetic hip infection at revision arthroplasty by immunofluorescence microscopy and PCR amplification of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. J Clin Microbiol 37, 32813290.
  • Walberg, M., Gaustad, P. and Steen, B. (1998) Rapid preparation procedure for staining of exponentially growing P. vulgaris cells with ethidium bromide: a flow cytometry-based study of probe uptake under various conditions. J Microbiol Methods 34, 4958.
  • Walberg, M., Gaustad, P. and Steen, B. (1999) Uptake kinetics of nucleic acid targeting dyes in S. aureus, E. faecalis and B. cereus: a flow cytometric study. J Microbiol Methods 35, 167176.
  • Wang, S. and Levin, R.E. (2006) Discrimination of viable Vibrio vulnificus cells from dead cells in real-time PCR. J Microbiol Methods 64, 18.