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Keywords:

  • Dekkera bruxellensis;
  • ethylphenols;
  • ferulic acid;
  • p-coumaric acid;
  • Pichia guilliermondii;
  • spoilage wine;
  • vinylphenols

Abstract

Aims:  To investigate whether the presence of Pichia guilliermondii impacts on the production of volatile phenols from mixed wine fermentations with Dekkera bruxellensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Methods and Results:  Four inoculation strategies were performed in small-scale fermentations involving P. guilliermondii, D. bruxellensis and S. cerevisiae using Syrah grape juice supplemented with 100 mg l−1 of p-coumaric acid. High pressure liquid chromatography was used for the quantification or volatile phenols. Significant high levels of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaicol (720 and 545 μg l−1, respectively), as well as the highest levels of 4-vinylphenol (>4500 μg l−1), were observed when P. guilliermondii species was inoculated from the beginning of the fermentation.

Conclusions:  The metabolic interaction occurring between the high vinylphenol producer species P. guilliermondii and D. bruxellensis exhibiting a high vinylphenol reductase activity resulted in an increased production of volatile phenols in wine.

Significance and Impact of the Study: Pichia guilliermondii must be considered a very important spoilage yeast in the wine industry capable of producing large amounts of volatile phenols.