Summary— The pharmacokinetics of piperacillin were evaluated in seven healthy volunteers, eight cirrhotic patients without ascites and 11 cirrhotic patients with sterile ascites after a single 15-min intravenous infusion of 4 g of the drug. In ascitic patients, piperacillin rapidly entered the peritoneal fluid. Peritoneal concentrations were higher than 10 mg/l from 0.5 to 8 h after the infusion. Disappearance rate of piperacillin was slower in the ascitic fluid than in plasma. The plasma half life of piperacillin was more prolonged in cirrhotic patients that in control subjects. This difference was more marked in ascitic patients for whom half life was twice as high as in volunteers (1.95 versus 0.91 h; P < 0.01).