• 1
    Lemberger L., Terman S., Rowe H., Billings R. The effect of nisoxetine (Lilly compound 94939), a potential antidepressant, on biogenic amine uptake in man. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1976) 3 215220.
  • 2
    Mongeau R., Blier P., de Montigny C. The serotonergic and noradrenergic systems of the hippocampus: their interactions and the effects of antidepressant treatments. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. (1997) 23 145195.
  • 3
    Richelson E., Pfenning M. Blockade by antidepressants and related compounds of biogenic amine uptake into rat brain synaptosomes: most antidepressants selectively block norepinephrine uptake. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1984) 104 277286.
  • 4
    Hennings E.C., Kiss J.P., De Oliveira K., Toth P.T., Vizi E.S. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonistic activity of monoamine uptake blockers in rat hippocampal slices. J. Neurochem. (1999) 73 10431050.
  • 5
    Woo R.S., Park E.Y., Shin M.S. et al. Mechanism of nicotine-evoked release of 3H-noradrenaline in human cerebral cortex slices. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2002) 137 10631070.
  • 6
    Chen Y.W., Chu C.C., Chen Y.C., Wang J.J., Hung C.H., Shao D.Z. Nisoxetine produces local but not systemic analgesia against cutaneous nociceptive stimuli in the rat. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2012) 675 2225.
  • 7
    Shaikh F.M., Naqvi S.A., Grace P.A. The influence of a eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine on minor surgical procedures: a randomized controlled double-blind trial. Dermatol. Surg. (2009) 35 948951.
  • 8
    Chen Y.W., Chu C.C., Chen Y.C., Wang J.J., Hung C.H. The dose-dependent study of verapamil and diltiazem on spinal anesthesia in the rat. Neurosci. Lett. (2010) 482 7680.
  • 9
    Chen Y.W., Chen Y.C., Lin C.N. et al. The spinal anaesthetic effect of dextromethorphan, dextrorphan, and 3-methoxymorphinan. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2007) 569 188193.
  • 10
    Chen Y.W., Chu C.C., Chen Y.C., Wang J.J., Hung C.H. Isobolographic analysis of caramiphen and lidocaine on spinal anesthesia in rats. Neurosci. Lett. (2010) 469 174178.
  • 11
    Hung C.H., Wang J.J., Chen Y.C., Chu C.C., Chen Y.W. Intrathecal oxybuprocaine and proxymetacaine produced potent and long-lasting spinal anesthesia in rats. Neurosci. Lett. (2009) 454 249253.
  • 12
    Hung C.H., Chu C.C., Chen Y.C., Chen Y.W., Hong H.J., Wang J.J. Isoflurane for spinal anesthesia in the rat. Neurosci. Lett. (2011) 501 138142.
  • 13
    Leung Y.M., Wu B.T., Chen Y.C., Hung C.H., Chen Y.W. Diphenidol inhibited sodium currents and produced spinal anesthesia. Neuropharmacology (2010) 58 11471152.
  • 14
    Thalhammer J.G., Vladimirova M., Bershadsky B., Strichartz G.R. Neurologic evaluation of the rat during sciatic nerve block with lidocaine. Anesthesiology (1995) 82 10131025.
  • 15
    Chen Y.W., Chu C.C., Chen Y.C., Hung C.H., Wang J.J. Intrathecal propranolol displays long-acting spinal anesthesia with a more sensory-selective action over motor blockade in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2011) 667 208214.
  • 16
    Chen Y.W., Liu K.S., Wang J.J., Chou W., Hung C.H. Isobolographic analysis of epinephrine with bupivacaine, dextromethorphan, 3-methoxymorphinan, or dextrorphan on infiltrative anesthesia in rats: dose-response studies. Reg. Anesth. Pain Med. (2008) 33 115121.
  • 17
    Chen Y.W., Chu K.S., Lin C.N. et al. Dextromethorphan or dextrorphan have a local anesthetic effect on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia in rats. Anesth. Analg. (2007) 104 12511255.
  • 18
    Tallarida R.J., Porreca F., Cowan A. Statistical analysis of drug-drug and site-site interactions with isobolograms. Life Sci. (1989) 45 947961.
  • 19
    Brau M.E., Branitzki P., Olschewski A., Vogel W., Hempelmann G. Block of neuronal tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ currents by stereoisomers of piperidine local anesthetics. Anesth. Analg. (2000) 91 14991505.
  • 20
    Castle N., Printzenhoff D., Zellmer S., Antonio B., Wickenden A., Silvia C. Sodium channel inhibitor drug discovery using automated high throughput electrophysiology platforms. Comb. Chem. High Throughput Screen. (2009) 12 107122.
  • 21
    Fozzard H.A., Lee P.J., Lipkind G.M. Mechanism of local anesthetic drug action on voltage-gated sodium channels. Curr. Pharm. Des. (2005) 11 26712686.
  • 22
    McLure H.A., Rubin A.P. Review of local anaesthetic agents. Minerva Anestesiol. (2005) 71 5974.
  • 23
    Markham A., Faulds D. Ropivacaine. A review of its pharmacology and therapeutic use in regional anaesthesia. Drugs (1996) 52 429449.
  • 24
    Yokogawa F., Kiuchi Y., Ishikawa Y. et al. An investigation of monoamine receptors involved in antinociceptive effects of antidepressants. Anesth. Analg. (2002) 95 163168.
  • 25
    Sindrup S.H., Jensen T.S. Efficacy of pharmacological treatments of neuropathic pain: an update and effect related to mechanism of drug action. Pain (1999) 83 389400.
  • 26
    Gray A.M., Pache D.M., Sewell R.D. Do alpha2-adrenoceptors play an integral role in the antinociceptive mechanism of action of antidepressant compounds? Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1999) 378 161168.
  • 27
    Onghena P., Van Houdenhove B. Antidepressant-induced analgesia in chronic non-malignant pain: a meta-analysis of 39 placebo-controlled studies. Pain (1992) 49 205219.
  • 28
    Pancrazio J.J., Kamatchi G.L., Roscoe A.K., Lynch C. III Inhibition of neuronal Na+ channels by antidepressant drugs. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1998) 284 208214.