From skin microrelief to wrinkles. An area ripe for investigation
Article first published online: 25 MAR 2004
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Volume 2, Issue 1, pages 21–28, January 2003
How to Cite
Piérard, G. E., Uhoda, I. and Piérard-Franchimont, C. (2003), From skin microrelief to wrinkles. An area ripe for investigation. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 2: 21–28. doi: 10.1111/j.1473-2130.2003.00012.x
- Issue published online: 25 MAR 2004
- Article first published online: 25 MAR 2004
- Accepted for publication 30 October 2003
- solar elastosis
Skin microrelief alters progressively with age. Wrinkles do not result from these changes but are superimposed upon them. Wrinkles result from structural changes in the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. Four types of wrinkles can be recognized.
Type 1 wrinkles are atrophic.
Type 2 wrinkles are elastotic.
Type 3 wrinkles are expressional.
Type 4 wrinkles are gravitational.
Each type of wrinkle is characterized by distinct microanatomical changes and each type of wrinkle develops in specific skin regions. Each is likely to respond differently to treatment. Skin microrelief and skin folds can be identified on histological examination. By contrast, only minimal dermal changes are found beneath permanent or reducible wrinkles compared with immediately adjacent skin. A series of objective and non-invasive methods is available to quantify the severity of wrinkling.