Get access

Androgenetic alopecia in males: a histopathological and ultrastructural study


Moetaz M. El-Domyati, MD, Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Minya University, 2 Obour Buildings, Salah Salem St, Apt. 53, Nasr City, Cairo 11371, Egypt. E-mail:;


Background  Androgenetic alopecia is a common cosmetic hair disorder, resulting from interplay of genetic, endocrine, and aging factors leading to a patterned follicular miniaturization. Microinflammation seems to be a potential active player in this process.

Aims  To study the histopathological and ultrastructural changes occurring in male androgenetic alopecia (AGA).

Patients/methods  Fifty-five subjects were included in this study (40 with AGA and 15 as normal age-matched controls). Skin biopsies from frontal bald area and occipital hairy area were subjected to histopathological examination, immunohistochemical staining for collagen I and ultrastructural study.

Results  The frontal bald area of patients showed highly significant increase in telogen hairs and decrease in anagen/telogen ratio and terminal/vellus hair ratio (< 0.001). Perifollicular inflammation was almost a constant feature in early cases and showed a significant inverse correlation with perifollicular fibrosis (= 0.048), which was more marked with thickening of the follicular sheath in advanced cases.

Conclusion  Follicular microinflammation plays an integral role in the pathogenesis of AGA in early cases. Over time, thickening of perifollicular sheath takes place due to increased deposition of collagen, resulting in marked perifollicular fibrosis, and sometimes ends by complete destruction of the affected follicles in advanced cases.