SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Alerstam, T. & Högstedt, G. 1982. Bird migration and reproduction in relation to habitats for survival and breeding. Ornis Scand. 13: 2537.
  • Andrén, H. 1990. Despotic distribution, unequal reproductive success and population regulation in the jay Garrulus glandarius L. Ecology 71: 17961803.
  • Arcese, P. & Smith, J.N.M. 1988. Effects of population density and supplemental food on reproduction in the song sparrow. J. Anim. Ecol. 57: 119136.
  • Baillie, S.R. & Peach, W.J. 1992. Population limitation in Palae-arctic-African migrant passerines. Ibis 134(Suppl.): 120132.
  • Berthold, P. 1984. The control of partial migration in birds: A review. The Ring 10: 253265.
  • Berthold, P. 1993. Bird Migration: A general survey. Oxford : Oxford University Press.
  • Berthold, P. & Helbig, A. J. 1992. The genetics of bird migration: Stimulus, timing and direction. Ibis 134(Suppl.): 3540.
  • Berthold, P., Helbig, A.J., Mohr, G. & Guerner, U. 1992. Rapid microevolution of migratory behaviour in a wild bird species. Nature 360: 668670.
  • Biebach, H. 1983. Genetic determination of partial migration in the European Robin, Erithacus rubecula. Auk 100: 601606.
  • Bridgewater, P. & Woodin, S. J. 1990. Global warming and nature conservation. Land Use Policy 7: 165168.
  • Brown, J.L. 1969. The buffer effect and productivity in tit populations. Am. Nat. 103: 347354.
  • Coulson, J.C. 1968. Differences in the quality of birds nesting in the centre and edges of a colony. Nature 217: 478479.
  • Coulson, J.C. 1984. The population dynamics of the Eider Duck Somateria molhssima and evidence of extensive non-breeding by adult ducks. Ibis 126: 525543.
  • Coulson, J.C., Duncan, N. & Thomas, C. 1982. Changes in the breeding biology of the herring gull (Lams argentatus) induced by reduction in the size and density of the colony. J. Anim. Ecol. 51: 739756.
  • Cresswell, W. 1994. Age-dependent choice of redshank (Tringa totanus) feeding location: Profitability or risk? J. Anim. Ecol. 63: 589600.
  • Croxall, J.P. & Rothery, P. 1991. Population regulation of seabirds: Implications of their demography for conservation. In Perrins, CM., Lebreton, J-D. & Hirons, G.J.M. (eds) Bird Population Studies: 272–296. Oxford : Oxford University Press.
  • Davis, M.B. 1990. Climatic change and the survival of forest species. Woodwell, G.M. (ed.) The Earth in Transition: Patterns and processes of biotic impoverishment: 99–110. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
  • Dhondt, A.A., Kempenaers, B. & Adriaensen, F. 1992. Densitydependent clutch size caused by habitat heterogeneity. J. Anim. Ecol. 61: 643648.
  • Ens, B.J., Kersten, M., Brenninkmeijer, A. & Hulscher, J. B. 1992. Territory quality, parental effort and reproductive success of Oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus). J. Anim. Ecol. 61: 703715.
  • Ewens, W.J., Brockwell, P.J., Gani, J.M. & Resnick, S.I. 1987. Minimum viable population size in the face of catastrophes. In Soulé, M.E. (ed.) Viable Populations for Conservation: 59–68. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
  • Galbraith, H. 1988. The effects of territorial behaviour on Lapwing populations. Ornis Scand. 19: 134138.
  • Gauthreaux, S.A. Jr. 1988. Age effects on migration and habitat selection. Proc. Int. Orn. Congr. XIX: 11061115.
  • Goodman, D. 1987. The demography of chance extinction. In Soulé, M.E. (ed.) Viable Populations for Conservation: 11–34. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
  • Goss-Custard, J.D. 1980. Competition for food and interference among waders. Ardea 68: 3152.
  • Goss-Custard, J.D. & Durrell, S.E.A. le V. dit. 1990. Bird behaviour and environmental planning: Approaches in the study of wader populations. Ibis 132: 272289.
  • Goss-Custard, J.D., Caldow, R.W.G., Clarke, R.T., Durell, S.E.A. le V. dit & West, A.D. 1995. Consequences of habitat loss and change to populations of wintering migratory birds: Predicting the local and global effects from studies of individuals. Ibis 137(Suppl.).
  • Greenberg, R. 1986. Competition in migrant birds in the non-breeding season. Current Ornith. 3: 281307.
  • Gwinner, E. 1971. Orientierung. In E.Schüz (ed.) Grundriß der Vogelzugskunde: 299–348. Berlin : Parey.
  • Heppleston, P.B. 1971. The feeding ecology of Oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus L.) in winter in northern Scotland. J. Anim. Ecol. 40: 651672.
  • Holdgate, M.W. 1991. Conservation in a world context. In Spellerberg, I.F., Goldsmith, F.B. & Morris, M.G. (eds) The Scientific Management of Temperate Communities for Conservation: 1–26. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific.
  • Holmes, R.T. 1966. Breeding ecology and annual cycle adaptations of the Red-backed Sandpiper Calidris alpina in northern Alaska. Condor 68: 346.
  • Holmes, R.T. & Sherry, T.W. 1992. Site fidelity of migratory warblers in temperate breeding and Neotropical wintering areas: Implications for population dynamics, habitat selection, and conservation. In Hogan, J.N. & Johnston, D.W. (eds) Ecology and Conservation of Neotropical Migrant Landbirds: 563–575. Washington , D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Hunt, G.L.J., Eppley, Z.A. & Schneider, D.C. 1986. Reproductive performance of seabirds: The importance of population and colony size. Auk 103: 306317.
  • Ketterson, E.D. & Nolan, V. 1983. The evolution of differential migration, Current Ornith. 1: 357402.
  • Klomp, N.I. & Furness, R.W. 1992. Non-breeders as a buffer against environmental stress: Declines in numbers of great skuas on Foula, Shetland, and prediction of future recruitment. J. Appl. Ecol. 29: 341348.
  • Kluijver, H.N. & Tinbergen, L. 1953. Territory and the regulation of density in titmice. Arch. Neerl. Zool. 10: 266287.
  • Knapton, R.W. & Krebs, J.R. 1974. Settlement patterns, territory size, and breeding density in the Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia.). Can. J. Zool. 52: 14131420.
  • Krebs, J.R. 1971. Territory and breeding density in the Great Tit Parus major L. Ecology 52: 222.
  • Krebs, J.R. 1977. Song and territory in the Great Tit Parus major. In Stonehouse, B. & Perrins, CM. (eds) Evolutionary Ecology: 47–62. London : Macmillan.
  • Manuwal, D.A. 1974. Effects of territoriality on breeding in a population of Cassin's Auklet. Ecology 55: 13991406.
  • Maynard-Smith, J. & Slatkin, M. 1973. The stability of predator-prey systems. Ecology 54: 384391.
  • McNamara, J.M. & Houston, A.I. 1990. State-dependent ideal free distributions. Evol. Ecol. 4: 298311.
  • Møller, A.P. 1991. Clutch size, nest predation, and distribution of avian unequal competitors in a patchy environment. Ecology 72: 13361349.
  • Mossop, D.H. 1985. Winter survival and breeding strategies of Willow Ptarmigan. In Bergerud, A.T. & Gratson, M.W. (eds) Adaptive Strategies and Population Ecology of Northern Grouse: 330–378. Minneapolis , Minnesota : University of Minnesota Press.
  • Murton, R.K. & Isaacson, A.J. 1964. Productivity and egg predation in the Woodpigeon. Ardea 52: 3047.
  • Newman, E.I. 1993. Applied Ecology. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  • Newton, I. 1991. Population limitation in raptors. In Perrins, CM., Lebreton, J-D. & Hirons, G.J.M. (eds) Bird Population Studies: 3–21. Oxford : Oxford University Press.
  • Newton, I. 1992. Experiments on the limitation of bird numbers by territorial behaviour. Biol. Rev. 67: 129173.
  • Newton, I. & Marquiss, M. 1991. Removal experiments and the limitation of breeding density in sparrowhawks. J. Anim. Ecol. 60: 535544.
  • Owen, M. & Black, J. M. 1989. Factors affecting survival of Barnacle Geese on migration from the breeding grounds. J. Anim. Ecol. 58: 603617.
  • Owen, M. & Black, J. M. 1990. Waterfowl Ecology. Glasgow : Blackie & Son.
  • Pienkowski, M.W. & Evans, P.R. 1984. Migratory behaviour of shorebirds in the western Palaearctic. In Burger, J. & Olla, B.L. (eds) Current Perspectives in Research: Behaviour of marine animals, Vol 6, Shorebird migration and fattening behaviour: 73–123. New York : Plenum Press.
  • Pienkowski, M.W. & Evans, P.R. 1985. The role of migration in the population dynamics of birds. In Sibly, R.M. & Smith, R.H. (eds) Behavioural Ecology: Ecological consequences of adaptive behaviour: 331–352. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  • Pierotti, R. 1980. Spite and altruism in gulls. Am. Nat. 115: 290300.
  • Piersma, T. & Davidson, N. C. 1992. The migrations and annual cycles of five subspecies of Knots in perspective. Wader Study Group Bull. 64(Suppl.): 187197.
  • Piersma, T., Tulp, I., Verkuil, Y., Wiersma, P., Gudmundsson, G.A. & Lindström, A. 1991. Arctic sounds on temperate shores: The occurrence of song and ground display in Knots Calidris canutus at spring staging sites. Ornis Scand. 22: 404407.
  • Porter, J.M. & Coulson, J.C. 1987. Long-term changes in recruitment to the breeding group, and the quality of recruits at a Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla colony. J. Anim. Ecol. 56: 675689.
  • Potts, G.R., Coulson, J.C. & Deans, I.R. 1980. Population dynamics and the breeding success of the Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis on the Fame Islands, Northumberland. J. Anim. Ecol. 49: 465484.
  • Prance, G.T. 1991. Rates of loss of biological diversity: A global view. In Spellerberg, I.F., Goldsmith, F.B. & Morris, M.G. (eds) The Scientific Management of Temperate Communities for Conservation: 27–44. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  • Prop, J., van Eerden, M.R. & Drent, R.H. 1984. Reproductive success of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis in relation to food exploitation on the breeding grounds, western Spitsbergen. Norsk Polarinst. Skr. 181: 87117.
  • Schwabl, H. 1983. Ausprägung und bedeutung des teilzugverhaltens einer südwestdeutschen population der amsel Turdus merula. J. Orn. 124: 213217.
  • Suhonen, J. 1993. Risk of predation and foraging sites of individuals in mixed-species tit flocks. Anim. Behav. 45: 11931198.
  • Sutherland, W.J. & Crockford, N.J. 1993. Factors affecting the feeding distribution of Red-breasted Geese Branta ruficollis wintering in Romania. Biol. Conserv. 63: 6165.
  • Sutherland, W.J. & Dolman, P.M. 1994. Combining behaviour and population dynamics with applications for predicting consequences of habitat loss. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 255: 133138.
  • Sutherland, W.J. & Goss-Custard, J.D. 1991. Predicting the consequences of habitat loss on shorebird populations. Proc. Int. Orn. Congr. XX: 21992207.
  • Sutherland, W.J. & Parker, G.A. 1985. Distribution of unequal competitors. In Sibly, R.M. & Smith, R.H. (eds) Behavioural Ecology: Ecological consequences of adaptive behaviour: 255–274. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  • Swennen, C. 1990. Oystercatchers feeding on giant bloody cockles on the Banc ?Arguin, Mauritania. Ardea 78: 5362.
  • Swennen, C. & Duiven, P. 1983. Characteristics of Oystercatchers killed by cold-stress in the Dutch Wadden Sea area. Ardea 71: 155159.
  • Village, A. 1983. The role of nest-site availability and territorial behaviour in limiting the breeding density of kestrels. J. Anim. Ecol. 52: 635645.
  • Watson, A. 1965. A population study of ptarmigan Lagopus mutus in Scotland. J. Anim. Ecol. 34: 135172.
  • Watson, A. & Jenkins, D. 1968. Experiments on population control by territorial behaviour in Red Grouse. J. Anim. Ecol. 37: 595614.
  • Wesolowski, T., Tomialojc, L. & Stawarczyk, T. 1987. Why low numbers of Parus major in Bialowieza Forest–Removal experiments. Acta Ornithol. 23: 304315.
  • Whitfield, D.P. 1985. Raptor predation on wintering waders in south-east Scotland. Ibis 127: 544558.
  • Wigley, T.M. & Raper, S.C.B. 1992. Implications for climate and sea-level of IPCC emissions scenarios. Nature 357: 293300.
  • Williams, T.C. & Williams, J.M. 1990. The orientation of transoceanic migrants. In Gwinner, E. (ed.) Bird Migration: The physiology and ecophysiology: 7–21. Berlin : Springer-Verlag.
  • Wilson, H.J., Norriss, D.W., Walsh, A., Fox, A.D. & Stroud, D.A. 1991. Winter site fidelity in Greenland White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons flavirostris, implications for conservation and management. Ardea 79: 287294.
  • Wiltschko, R. & Wiltschko, W. 1991. Magnetic orientation and celestial cues in migratory orientation. In P.Berthold (ed.) Orientation in Birds: 16–37. Basel : Birkhäuser.
  • Wymenga, E., Engelmoer, C.J., Smit, C.J. & Van Spanje, T.M. 1990. Geographical breeding origin and migration of waders wintering in west Africa. Ardea 78: 83112.
  • Young, C.M. 1970. Territoriality in the Common Shelduck Tadoma tadorna. Ibis 112: 330335.
  • Young, E.C. 1972. Territory establishment and stability in McCormick's Skua. Ibis 114: 234244.
  • Zwarts, L. & Piersma, T. 1990. How important is the Banc ?Arguin, Mauritania, as a temporary staging area for waders in spring Ardea 78: 113121.