SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Andrén, H. 1992. Corvid density and nest predation in relation to forest fragmentation: A landscape perspective. Ecology 73: 794804.
  • Andren, H. & Angelstam, P. 1988. Elevated predation rates as an edge effect in habitat islands: Experimental evidence. Ecology 69: 544547.
  • Angelstam, P. 1986. Predation on ground-nesting birds' nests in relation to predator density and habitat edge. Oikos 47: 365373.
  • Angelstam, P. 1992. Conservation of communities—The importance of edges, surroundings and landscape mosaic structure. In Hansson, L. (ed.) Ecological Principles of Nature Conservation: 9–70. London : Elsevier.
  • Baur, A. & Baur, B. 1992. Effect of corridor width on animal dispersal: A simulation study. Global Ecol. Biogeog. Letters 2: 5256.
  • Bennett, A.F. 1990. Habitat Corridors Their role in wildlife management and conservation.. Victoria , Australia : Department of Conservation & Environment.
  • Bierregaard, R.O. Jr., Lovejoy, T.E., Kaapos, V., dos Santos, A.A. & Hutchings, R.W. 1992. The biological dynamics of tropical rainforest fragments. Bioscience 42: 859866.
  • Brussard, P.F., Murphy, D.D. & Noss, R.F. 1992. Strategy and tactics for conserving biological diversity in the United States. Conserv. Biol. 6: 157159.
  • Carey, A.B., Horton, S.P. & Biswell, B.L. 1992. Northern Spotted Owls: Influence of prey base and landscape character. Ecol. Mono-gr. 62: 223250.
  • Cody, MX. 1985. Habitat Selection in Birds. New York : Academic Press.
  • Collins, S.L., Glenn, S.M. & Roberts, D.W. 1993. The hierarchical continuum concept. J. Vegetation Sci. 4: 149156.
  • Diamond, J. M. 1975. Assembly of species communities. In Cody, M.L. & Diamond, J.M. (eds) Ecology and Evolution of Communities: 342–444. Cambridge , Mass : Harvard University Press.
  • Fahrig, L. 1992. Relative importance of spatial and temporal scales in a patchy environment. Theor. Popul. Biol. 41: 300314.
  • Fahrig, L. & Paloheimo, J. 1988. Determinants of local population size in patchy habitats. Theor. Popul. Biol. 34: 194213.
  • Gardner, R.H., Turner, M.G., O'Neill, R.V. & Lavorel, S. 1991. Simulation of the scale-dependent effects of landscape boundaries on species persistence and dispersal. In Holland, M.M., Risser, P.G. & Naiman, R.J. (eds) Ecotones. The role of landscape boundaries in the management and restoration of changing environments: 76–89. New York : Chapman & Hall.
  • Gates, J.E. & Gysel, L.W. 1978. Avian nest dispersion and fledging success in field-forest ecotones. Ecology 59: 871883.
  • Gilbert, F.S. 1980. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography: Fact or fiction? J. Biogeogr. 7: 209235.
  • Haila, Y. 1991. Implications of landscape heterogeneity for bird conservation. Acta Congr. Intern. Ornithol. XX: 22862291.
  • Haila, Y., Saunders, D.A. & Hobbs, R.J. 1993. What do we presently understand about ecosystem fragmentation? In Saunders, D.A., Hobbs, R.J. & Ehrlich, P.R. (eds) Nature Conservation 3: Reconstruction of fragmented ecosystems: 45–55. Chipping Norton , New South Wales , Australia : Surrey Beatty & Sons.
  • Hansen, A.J. & diCastri, F. (eds.) 1992. Landscape Boundaries: Consequences for biological diversity and ecological flows. New York : Springer.
  • Hanski, I. 1991. Single-species metapopulation dynamics: Concepts, models and observations. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 42: 1738.
  • Hansson, L. 1983. Bird numbers across edges between mature conifer forest and clearcuts in central Sweden. Ornis Scand. 14: 97103.
  • Harris, L.D. 1984. The Fragmented Forest. Island biogeography theory and the preservation of biotic diversity. Chicago , Ill. : University of Chicago Press.
  • Harris, L.D. & Silva-Lopez, G. 1992. Forest fragmentation and the conservation of biological diversity. In Fiedler, P. & Jain, S. (eds) Conservation Biology, the Theory and Practice of Nature Conservation, Preservation, and Management: 197–237. New York : Chapman & Hall.
  • Harrison, R.L. 1992. Toward a theory of inter-refuge corridor design. Conserv. Biol. 6: 293295.
  • Hobbs, R.J. 1992. The role of corridors in conservation: Solution or bandwagon? Trends Ecol. Evol. 7: 389392.
  • Hobbs, R.J. 1993. Effects of landscape fragmentation on ecosystem processes in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Biol. Conserv. 64: 193201.
  • Hobs, R.J., Saunders, D.A. & Arnold, G.W. 1993. Integrated landscape ecology: A Western Australian perspective. Biol. Conserv. 64: 231238.
  • Hobbs, R.J., Saunders, D.A., Lobry de Bruyn, L.A. & Main, A.R. 1992. Changes in biota. In Hobbs, R.J. & Saunders, D.A. (eds) Reintegrating Fragmented Landscapes: 65–106. New York : Springer.
  • Hunter, M.L. Jr. 1990. Wildlife, Forests, and Forestry: Principles of managing forests for biological diversity. Englewood Cliffs , N.J. : Prentice-Hall.
  • Hunter, MX. Jr. 1991. Introductory remarks: Bird conservation at a landscape scale: Seeing the world from a bird's-eye view. Acta Congr. Int. Ornithol. XX: 22832285.
  • Johnson, W.C. & Adkisson, C.S. 1985. Dispersal of beech nuts by Blue Jays in fragmented landscapes. Am. Midi. Nat. 113: 319324.
  • Kremsater, L.L. & Bunnell, F.L. 1992. Testing responses to forest edges: The example of Black-tailed Deer. Can. J. Zool. 70: 24262435.
  • Lande, R. 1988. Demographic models of the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). Oecologia 75: 601607.
  • Langen, T. A., Bolger, D. T. & Case, T. J. 1991. Predation on artificial bird nests in chaparral fragments. Oecologia 86: 395401.
  • Lefkovitch, L.P. & Fahrig, L. 1985. Spatial characteristics of habitat patches and population survival. Ecol. Model. 30: 297308.
  • Levin, S.A. 1992. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology 73: 19431967.
  • Lord, J.M. & Norton, D.A. 1990. Scale and the spatial concept of fragmentation. Conserv. Biol. 4: 197202.
  • MacArthur, R.H. & Wilson, E.O. 1967. The Theory of Island Bio-geography. Princeton , N.J. : Princeton University Press.
  • Merriam, G. 1988. Landscape dynamics in farmland. Trends Ecol. Evol. 3: 1620.
  • Merriam, G. 1991. Corridors and connectivity: Animal populations in heterogeneous environments. In Saunders, D.A. & Hobbs, R.J. (eds) Nature Conservation 2: The role of corridors in nature conservation: 134–142. Chipping Norton , New South Wales , Australia : Surrey Beatty & Sons.
  • Merriam, G. & Saunders, D. A. 1993. Corridors in restoration of fragmented landscapes. In Saunders, D.A., Hobbs, R.J. & Ehrlich, P.R. (eds) Nature Conservation 3: Reconstruction of fragmented ecosystems: 71–87. Chipping Norton , New South Wales , Australia : Surrey Beatty & Sons.
  • Noss, R.F. 1991. Landscape connectivity: Different functions at different scales. In Hudson, W.E. (ed.) Landscape Linkages and Biodiversity. Washington , D.C. : Island Press.
  • O'Neill, R.V., Gardner, R.H. & Turner, M.G. 1992. A hierarchical neutral model for landscape analysis. Landscape Ecol. 7: 5561.
  • Opdam, P. 1990. Dispersal in fragmented populations: The key to survival. In Bunce, R.G.H. & Howard, D.C. (eds) Species Dispersal in Agricultural Habitat: 3–17. London : Belhaven Press.
  • Opdam, P. 1991. Metapopulation theory and habitat fragmentation: A review of holarctic breeding bird studies. Landscape Ecol. 5: 93106.
  • Opdam, P., Rijsdijk, G. & Hustings, F. 1985. Bird communities in small woods in an agricultural landscape: Effects of area and isolation. Biol. Conserv. 34: 333352.
  • Osborne, P. 1984. Bird numbers and habitat characteristics in farmland hedgerows. J. Appl. Ecol. 21: 6382.
  • Ricklefs, R.E. & Schluter, D. (eds.) 1994. Species Diversity in Ecological Communities. Historical and geographical perspectives. Chicago , Ill. : University of Chicago Press.
  • Robinson, G.R., Holt, R.D. Gaines, M.S., Hamburg, S.P., Johnson, M.L., Fitch, H.S. & Martinko, E.A. 1992. Diverse and contrasting effects of habitat fragmentation. Science 257: 524526.
  • Roland, J. 1993. Large-scale forest fragmentation increases the duration of tent caterpillar outbreak. Oecologia 93: 2530.
  • Rolstad, J. & Wegge, P. 1987. Distribution and size of Capercaillie leks in relation to old forest fragmentation. Oecologia 72: 389394.
  • Rudnicky, T.C. & Hunter, MX. 1993. Reversing the fragmentation perspective: Effects of clearcut size on bird species richness in Maine. Ecol. Appl. 3: 357366.
  • Saunders, D.A. 1989. Changes in the avifauna of a region, district and remnant as a result of fragmentation of native vegetation: The wheatbelt of Western Australia. A case study. Biol. Conserv. 50: 99135.
  • Saunders, D.A. 1990. Problems of survival in an extensively cultivated landscape: The case of Carnaby's Cockatoo Calyptorkyn-chus funereus latirostris. Biol. Conserv. 54: 277290.
  • Saunders, D.A. & Hobbs, R.J. (eds.) 1991. Nature Conservation 2: The role of corridors. Chipping Norton , New South Wales , Australia : Surrey Beatty & Sons.
  • Saunders, D.A., Hobbs, R.J. & Arnold, G.W. 1993. The Kellerberrin Project on fragmented landscapes: A review of current information. Biol. Conserv. 64: 185192.
  • Saunders, D.A., Hobbs, R.J. & Margules, C.R. 1991. Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: A review. Conserv. Biol. 5: 1829.
  • Schmiegelow, F.K.A. & Hannon, S.J. 1993. Adaptive management, adaptive science and the effects of forest fragmentation on boreal birds in northern Alberta. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. LVIII: 584598.
  • Simberloff, D. & Abele, L. G. 1984. Conservation and obfuscation: Subdivision of reserves. Oikos 42: 399401.
  • Simberloff, D.S. & Cox, J. 1987. Consequences and costs of conservation corridors. Conserv. Biol. 1: 6371.
  • Smith, A.T. & Peacock, M.M. 1990. Conspecific attraction and determination of metapopulation colonization rates. Conserv. Biol. 4: 320323.
  • Soberon, J.M. 1992. Island biogeography and conservation practice. Conserv. Biol. 6: 161.
  • Soule, M.E. & Gilpin, M.E. 1991. The theory of wildlife corridor capability. In Saunders, D.A. & Hobbs, R.J. (eds) Nature Conservation 2: The role of corridors: 3–8. Chipping Norton , New South Wales , Australia : Surrey Beatty & Sons.
  • Stenseth, N.C. & Hansson, L. 1981. The importance of population dynamics in heterogeneous landscapes: Management of vertebrate pests and some other animals. Agro-Ecosystems 7: 187211.
  • Szaro, R.C. & Jakle, M.D. 1985. Avian use of a desert riparian island and its adjacent scrub habitat. Condor 87: 511519.
  • Taylor, P.D., Fahrig, L., Henein, K., & Merriam, G. 1993. Connectivity is a vital element of landscape structure. Oikos 68: 571573.
  • Temple, S.A. 1991. The role of dispersal in the maintenance of bird populations in a fragmented landscape. Acta Congr. Int. Or-nithol. XX: 22982305.
  • Temple, S.A. & Cary, J.R. 1988. Modelling dynamics of habitat-interior bird population dynamics in fragmented landscapes. Conserve. Biol. 2: 340347.
  • Temple, S.A. & Wiens, J.A. 1989. Bird populations and environmental changes: Can birds be bio-indicators? Am. Birds 43: 260270.
  • Thomas, J.W., Forsman, E.D., Lint, J.B., Meslow, E.C., Noon, B.R. & Verner, J. 1990. A conservation strategy for the Northern Spotted Owl. Portland , Oreg. : U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • Van Dorp, D. & Opdam, P.F.M. 1987. Effects of patch size, isolation and regional abundance on forest bird communities. Landscape Ecol. 1: 5973.
  • Van Home, B. 1991. Spatial configuration of avian habitats. Acta Congr. Int. Ornithol. XX: 23132319.
  • Verboom, J., Metz, J.A.J. & Meelis, E. 1993. Metapopulation models for impact assessment of fragmentation. In Vos, C.C. & Opdam, P. (eds) Landscape Ecology of a Stressed Environment: 172–191. London : Chapman & Hall.
  • Vickery, P.D., Hunter, M.L..& Wells, J.V. 1992. Evidence of incidental nest predation and its effects on nests of threatened grassland birds. Oikos 63: 281288.
  • Weddell, B.J. 1991. Distribution and movements of Columbian Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus columbianus (Ord)): Are habitat patches like islands J. Biogeogr. 18: 385394.
  • Wiens, J.A. 1989a. The Ecology of Bird Communities, Vol. 2, Processes and variations. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
  • Wiens, J.A. 1989b. Spatial scaling in ecology. Funct. Ecol. 3: 385397.
  • Wiens, J.A. 1990. Habitat fragmentation and wildlife populations: The importance of autecology, time, and landscape structure. Trans. Int. Union Game Biol. XIX Congr: 381391.
  • Wiens, J.A. 1991. Ecological similarity of shrub-desert avifaunas of Australia and North America. Ecology 72: 479495.
  • Wiens, J.A. in press. Landscape mosaics and ecological theory. In Hansson, L., Fahrig, L. & Merriam, G. (eds) Mosaic Landscapes and Ecological Processes. London : Chapman & Hall.
  • Wiens, J.A. & Rotenberry, J.T. 1985. Response of breeding passerine birds to rangeland alteration in a North American shrub-steppe locality. J. Appl. Ecol. 22: 655668.
  • Wiens, J.A., Crawford, C.S. & Gosz, J. R. 1985. Boundary dynamics: A conceptual framework for studying landscape ecosystems. Oikos 45: 421427.
  • Wiens, J.A., Stenseth, N.C., Van Home, B. & Ims, R.A. 1993. Ecological mechanisms and landscape ecology. Oikos 66: 369380.
  • Wilcove, D.S. 1985. Nest predation in forest tracts and the decline of migratory songbirds. Ecology 85: 12111214.
  • Wilcove, D.S., McLellan, C.H. & Dobson, A.P. 1986. Habitat fragmentation in the temperate zone. In Soule, M.E. (ed.) Conservation Biology. The science of scarcity and diversity: 237–256. Sunderland , Mass. : Sinauer.
  • Wilson, E.O. & Willis, E.O. 1975. Applied biogeography. In Cody, MX. & Diamond, J.M. (eds) Ecology and Evolution of Communities: 522–534. Cambridge , Mass. : Harvard University Press.
  • Woinarski, J.C.Z., Whitehead, P.J., Bowman, D.M.J.S. & Russell-Smith, J. 1992. Conservation of mobile species in a variable environment: The problem of reserve design in the Northern Territory, Australia. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. Letters 2: 110.
  • Yahner, R.H. & DeLong, C.A. 1992. Avian predation and parasitism on artificial nests and eggs in two fragmented landscapes. Wilson Bull. 104: 162168.
  • Yahner, R.H. & Morrell, T.E. 1991. Depredation of artificial nests in irrigated forests. Wilson Bull. 103: 113117.
  • Zimmerman, B.L. & Bierregaard, R.O. 1986. Relevance of the equilibrium theory of island biogeography and species-area relations to conservation with a case from Amazonia. J. Biogeogr. 13: 133143.