Population declines are often attributed to either habitat change or increased predation rates, without a full consideration of the potential for these two factors to interact. This may lead to an inaccurate diagnosis of the causes of population decline and thus the selection of inappropriate management solutions. Here mechanisms through which habitat change and predation could interact are reviewed. Examples of how these may have contributed to population declines are provided, focusing on European farmland birds. However, very few appropriate studies have been conducted that allow the role of such interactions to be assessed accurately. To remedy this situation experimental designs that could detect the presence of interactive mechanisms are described. When habitat change and predation interact, conservation managers are provided with the opportunity to control predation impacts through habitat management rather than predator removal, which may provide a more cost-effective management strategy.