SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Aebischer, N.J. 1997. Gamebirds: management of the Grey Partridge in Britain. In Bolton, M. (ed.) Conservation and the Use of Wildlife Resources: 131151. London: Chapman & Hall.
  • Aebischer, N.J. & Baines, D. in press. Monitoring gamebird abundance and productivity in the UK: the GCT long-term datasets. Turkish J. Zool.
  • Allen, D.S. & Feare, C.J. 2003. Birds of prey and lowland gamebird management. In Thompson, D.B.A., Redpath, S.M., Fielding, A.H., Marquiss, M. & Galbraith, C.A. (eds) Birds of Prey in a Changing Environment: 427442. Edinburgh: The Stationery Office.
  • Allen, D.S., Packer, J.J., Feare, C.J. & Blanchard, C. 2000. Raptors and the rearing of Pheasants: problems and management needs. ADAS Consulting Ltd. Unpublished report to British Association for Shooting and Conservation. Available from DEFRA, Zone 1/08a, Temple Quay House, 2 The Square, Temple Quay, Bristol BS1 6EB.
  • Amar, A., Arroyo, B., Redpath, S.M. & Thirgood, S. 2004. Habitat predicts losses of red grouse to individual hen harriers. J. Appl. Ecol. 41: 305314.
  • Angelstam, P. 1984. Sexual and seasonal differences in mortality of the Black Grouse Tetrao tetrix in Boreal Sweden. Ornis Scand. 15: 123124.
  • Baines, D. 1996. The implications of grazing and predation management on the habitats and breeding success of black grouse Tetrao tetrix. J. Appl. Ecol. 33: 5462.
  • Baines, D. & Andrew M. 2003. Marking of deer fences to reduce frequency of collisions by woodland grouse. Biol. Conserv. 110: 169176.
  • Baines, D. & Hudson, P.J. 1995. The decline of the Black Grouse in Scotland and northern England. Bird Study 42: 122131.
  • Baines, D., Moss, R. & Dugan, D. 2004. Capercaillie breeding success in relation to forest habitat and predator abundance. J. Appl. Ecol. 41: 5971.
  • Baker, H., Stroud, D.A., Aebischer, N.J., Cranswick, P.A., Gregory, R.D., McSorely, C.A., Noble, D.G. & Rehfisch, M.M. 2006. Population estimates of birds in Great Britain and the United Kingdom. Br. Birds 99: 2544.
  • Begon, M., Harper, J.L. & Townsend, C.R. 1990. Ecology: Individuals, Populations and Communities, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  • Bibby, C.J. 1987. Foods of breeding Merlins Falco columbarius in Wales. Bird Study 34: 6470.
  • Bowker, G. & Bowker, C. 2003. Lake Vyrnwy Black Grouse Project. Final Report. Report to Severn Trent Water by Lagopus Services.
  • Bowker, G., Bowker, C. & Baines, D. 2007. Survival rates and causes of mortality in Black Grouse at Lake Vyrnwy, North Wales, UK. Wildlife Biol. 13: 231237.
  • Bro, E., Sarrazin, F., Clobert, J. & Reitz, F. 2000. Demography and the decline of the grey partridge Perdix perdix in France. J. Appl. Ecol. 37: 432448.
  • Bro, E., Reitz, F., Clobert, J., Migot, P. & Massot, M. 2001. Diagnosing the environmental causes of the decline in Grey Partridge Perdix perdix survival in France. Ibis 143: 120132.
  • Bro, E., Arroyo, B. & Migot, P. 2006. Conflict between grey partridge Perdix perdix hunting and hen harrier Circus cyaneus protection in France: a review. Wildl. Biol. 12: 233247.
  • Caizergues, A. & Ellison, L. 1997. Survival of black grouse Tetrao tetrix in the French Alps. Wildl. Biol. 3: 177186.
  • Caizergues, A. & Ellison, L. 1998. Impact of radio-tracking on black grouse Tetrao tetrix reproductive success in the French Alps. Wildlife Biol. 4: 205212.
  • Calladine, J., Baines, D. & Warren, P. 2002. Effects of reduced grazing on population density and breeding success of black grouse in northern England. J. Appl. Ecol. 39: 772780.
  • Canning, P. 2006. The UK Game Bird Industry – A Short Study. Report to Defra. Lincoln: ADAS.
  • Catt, D.C., Dugan, D., Green, R.E., Moncrieff, R., Moss, R., Picozzi, N., Summers, R.W. & Tyler, G.A. 1994. Collisions against fences by woodland grouse in Scotland. Forestry 67: 105118.
  • Cattadori, I.M., Haydon, D.T., Thirgood, S.J. & Hudson, P.J. 2003. Are indirect measures of abundance a useful index of population density? The case of red grouse harvesting. Oikos 100: 439446.
  • Caughley, G. & Gunn, A. 1996. Conservation Biology in Theory and Practice. Maldon, MA: Blackwell Science.
  • Cayford, J.T., Tyler, G. & Macintosh-Williams, L. 1989. The Ecology and Management of Black Grouse in Conifer Forests in Wales. Newtown: RSPB.
  • Cobham Resource Consultants. 1997. Countryside Sports Their Economic, Social and Conservation Significance. Reading: The College of Estate Management.
  • Cotgreave, P. 1995. Relative importance of avian groups in the diets of British and Irish predators. Bird Study 42: 246252.
  • Cox, S.A., Peoples, A.D., DeMaso, S.J., Lusk, J.J. & Guthery, F.S. 2004. Survival and cause-specific mortality of northern bobwhites in western Oklahoma. J. Wildl. Manage. 68: 663671.
  • Crick, H.Q.P. Marchant, J.H., Noble, D.G., Baillie, S.R., Balmer, D.E., Beaven, L.P., Coombes, R.H., Downie, I.S., Freeman, S.N., Joys, A.C., Leech, D.I., Raven, M.J., Robinson, R.A. & Thewlis, R.M. 2004. Breeding Birds in the Wider Countryside: their conservation status 2003. BTO Research Report No. 353. (http://www.bto.org/birdtrends). Thetford: BTO.
  • Dudzinski, W. 1992. Grey Partridge (Perdix perdix) predation relationships in cropland and forest habitat of central Poland. Gibier Faune Sauvage 3: 455466.
  • Fielding, A.H., Haworth, P.F., Morgan, D.H., Thompson, D.B.A. & Whitfield, D.P. 2003. The impact of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) on a diverse bird of prey assemblage. In Thompson, D.B.A., Redpath, S.M., Fielding, A.H., Marquiss, M. & Galbraith, C.A. (eds). Birds of Prey in a Changing Environment: 221244. Edinburgh: The Stationery Office.
  • Fraser of Allander Institute for Research on the Scottish Economy, University of Strathclyde. 2001. An Economic Study of Scottish Grouse Moors: An Update. Fordingbridge: The Game Conservancy Trust.
  • Gibbons, D.W., Reid, J.B. & Chapman, R.A. 1993. The New Atlas of Breeding Birds in Britain and Ireland: 1988–1991. London: T. & A.D. Poyser Ltd.
  • Graham, I.M., Redpath, S.M. & Thirgood, S.J. 1995. The diet and breeding density of Common Buzzards Buteo buteo in relation to indices of prey abundance. Bird Study 42: 165173.
  • Graham, K.E., Beckerman, A.P. & Thirgood, S.J. 2005. Human–predator–prey conflicts: ecological correlates, prey losses and patterns of management. Biol. Conserv. 122: 159171.
  • Gregory, R.D., Wilkinson, N.I., Noble, D.G., Robinson, J.A., Brown, A.F., Hughes, J., Procter, D.A., Gibbons, D.W. & Galbraith, C.A. 2002. The population status of birds in the United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man: an analysis of conservation concern 2002–2007. Br. Birds 95: 410448.
  • Hancock, M., Baines, D., Gibbons, D., Etheridge, B. & Shepherd, M. 1999. The status of Black Grouse in Britain. Bird Study, 46: 115.
  • Harradine, J., Reynolds, N. & Laws, T. 1997. Raptors and Gamebirds. A Survey of Game Managers Affected by Raptors. Wrexham: British Association for Shooting and Conservation.
  • Hudson, P.J. 1992. Grouse in Space and Time: The Population Biology of A Managed Gamebird. Hampshire: Game Conservancy Ltd.
  • Hudson, P.J., Dobson, A. & Newborn, D. 1992. Do parasites make prey vulnerable to predation? Red grouse and parasites. J. Anim. Ecol. 61: 681692.
  • Hudson, P.J., Newborn, D. & Robertson, P.A. 1997. Geographical and seasonal patterns of mortality in Red Grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus populations. Wildlife Biol. 3: 7987.
  • Jenkins, D., Watson, A. & Miller, G.R. 1963. Population studies on red grouse in northeast Scotland. J. Anim. Ecol. 32: 317376.
  • Jenkins, D., Watson, A. & Miller, G.R. 1964. Predation and red grouse populations. J. Appl. Ecol. 1: 183195.
  • Johnstone, I. & Lindley, P. 2003. The Proximate Causes of Black Grouse Breeding Failure in Wales. Bangor: RSPB report to CCW (CCW contract science report No. 600).
  • Kenward, R.E. 1977. Predation on released pheasants by Goshawks in central Sweden. Swedish Game Res. 10: 79112.
  • Kenward, R.E., Hall, D.G., Walls, S.S. & Hodder, K.H. 2001. Factors affecting predation by buzzards Buteo buteo on released pheasants Phasianus colchicus. J. Appl. Ecol. 38: 813822.
  • Linden, H. & Wikman, M. 1983. Goshawk predation on tetraonids: availability of prey and diet of the predator in the breeding season. J. Anim. Ecol. 52: 953968.
  • Lindley, P., Johnstone, I. & Thorpe, R. 2003. The status of black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) in Wales in 2002 and evidence for population recovery. Welsh Birds 3: 318329.
  • Marquiss, M., Ratcliffe, D.A. & Roxburgh, R. 1985. The numbers, breeding success and diet of Golden Eagles in southern Scotland in relation to changes in land use. Biol. Conserv. 34: 121140.
  • Martinez, J., Vinuela, J. & Villafuerte, R. 2002. Socio-economic and Cultural Aspects of Gamebird Hunting. Reconciling Gamebird Hunting and Biodiversity. Finland: University of Turku.
  • McGilvray, J. 1995. An Economic Study of Grouse Moors. Fordingbridge: Game Conservancy Trust.
  • Mearns, R. 1982. Winter occupation of breeding territories and winter diet of Peregrines in south Scotland. Ornis Scand. 13: 7983.
  • Mearns, R. 1983. The diet of the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus in south Scotland during the breeding season. Bird Study 30: 8190.
  • Messmer, T.A. 2000. The emergence of human–wildlife conflict management: turning challenges into opportunities. Int. Biodeterioration Biodegradation 45: 97102.
  • Moss, R. 1994. Decline of capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) in Scotland. Gibier Faune Sauvage 11: 217222.
  • Moss, R., Picozzi, N., Summers, R.W. & Baines, D. 2000. Capercaillie Tetrao urogallus in Scotland – demography of a declining population. Ibis 142: 259267.
  • Moss, R., Oswald, J. & Baines, D. 2001. Climate change and breeding success: decline of the capercaillie in Scotland. J. Anim. Ecol. 70: 4761.
  • Neilsen, O.K. 1999. Gyrfalcon predation on ptarmigan: numerical and functional responses. J. Anim. Ecol. 68: 10341050.
  • Newton, I. 1992. Birds of prey. In Crawley, M.J. (ed.) Natural Enemies: The Population Biology of Predators, Parasites and Diseases: 143162. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  • Newton, I. 1993. Predation and limitation of bird numbers. Curr. Ornithol. 11: 143197.
  • Newton, I. 1998. Population Limitation in Birds. London: Academic Press.
  • Newton, I. & Marquiss, M. 1982. Food, predation and breeding season in Sparrowhawks Accipiter nisus. J. Zool. Lond. 197: 221240.
  • Ormerod, S.J. 2002. Applied issues with predators and predation: editor's introduction. J. Appl. Ecol. 39: 181188.
  • Parish, D.M.B. & Sotherton, N.W. 2007. The fate of released captive reared grey partridge Perdix perdix; implications for reintroduction programmes. Wildl. Biol. 13: 140149.
  • Park, K.J. 2004. Assessment and management of invasive alien predators. Ecol. Soc. 9: 12. [online] URL: http://ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss2/art12.
  • Park, K.J., Calladine, J.R., Graham, K.E., Stephenson, C.M. & Wernham, C.V. 2005. The Impacts of Predatory Birds on Waders, Songbirds, Gamebirds and Fisheries Interests. Research contract FO4AC20A to Scotland's Moorland Forum. Available at: http://www.moorlandforum.org.uk/documents/PBRFinal.pdf
  • Pearce-Higgins, J.W., Grant, M.C., Robinson, M.C. & Haysom, S.L. 2007. The role of forest maturation in causing the decline of Black Grouse Tetrao tetrix. Ibis 149: 143155.
  • Picozzi, N. 1978. Dispersion, breeding and the prey of the hen harrier Circus cyaneus in Glen Dye, Kincardineshire. Ibis 120: 498508.
  • Picozzi, N. & Hepburn, L.V. 1984. A study of Black Grouse in north east Scotland. In Hudson, P.J. & Lovel, T. (eds) Proceedings of the 3rd International Grouse Symposium: 462480. International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation, and the World Pheasant Association: York.
  • Potts, G.R. 1986. The Partridge, Pesticides, Predation and Conservation. London: Collins.
  • Potts, G.R. 1990. Numbers, harvest status and management recommendations for game species in the UK. Game Conservancy Trust Annual Review 33: 30.
  • Preisser E.L., Bolnick, D.I. & Benard, M.F. 2005. Scared to death? The effects of intimidation and consumption in predator–prey interactions. Ecology 86: 501509.
  • Public & Corporate Economic Consultants. 2006. The Economic and Environmental Impact of Sporting Shooting. Commissioned report for British Association for Shooting & Conservation, the Countryside Alliance and the Country Land and Business Association, in association with Game Conservancy Trust. Cambridge, UK. Available at: http://www.shootingfacts.co.uk/
  • Ratcliffe, D. 1993. The Peregrine Falcon, 2nd edn. London: T. & A.D. Poyser Ltd.
  • Raven, M.J. & Noble, D.G. 2006. The Breeding Bird Survey 2005. BTO Research Report No. 439. Thetford: British Trust for Ornithology,
  • Redpath, S. 1991. The impact of hen harriers on red grouse breeding success. J. Appl. Ecol. 28: 659671.
  • Redpath, S., Arroyo, B.E., Leckie, F.M., Bacon, P., Bayfield, N., Gutiérrez, R.J. & Thirgood, S.J. 2004. Using decision modeling with stakeholders to reduce human-wildlife conflict: a raptor-grouse case study. Conserv. Biol. 18: 350359.
  • Redpath, S.M. & Thirgood, S.J. 1997. Birds of Prey and Red Grouse. London: HMSO.
  • Redpath, S.M. & Thirgood, S.J. 1999. Numerical and functional responses in generalist predators: hen harriers and peregrines on Scottish grouse moors. J. Anim. Ecol. 68: 879892.
  • Redpath, S.M. & Thirgood, S.J. 2003. The impact of hen harrier (Circus cyaneus) predation on Red Grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) populations: linking models with field data. In Thompson, D.B.A., Redpath, S.M., Fielding, A.H., Marquiss, M. & Galbraith, C.A. (eds) Birds of Prey in a Changing Environment: 499510. Edinburgh: The Stationery Office.
  • Reif, V., Tornberg, R., Jungell, S. & Korpimäki, E. 2001. Diet variation of common buzzards in Finland supports the alternative prey hypothesis. Ecography 24: 267274.
  • Robson, G. & Carter, I. 1999. Do Raptors Disturb Driven Grouse Shoots? A Pilot Study in Northern England. English Nature Research Report no. 342. Peterborough: English Nature.
  • Robson, G. & Carter, I. 2001. Do Raptors Disturb Driven Grouse Shoots? A Study in Northern England. English Nature Research Report no. 401. Peterborough: English Nature.
  • Roemer, G.W. & Wayne, R.K. 2003. Conservation in conflict: the tale of two endangered species. Conserv. Biol. 17: 12511260.
  • Sim, I.M.W., Gibbons, D.W., Bainbridge, I.P. & Mattingley, W.A. 2001. Status of the Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus in the UK and Isle of Man in 1998. Bird Study 48: 341353.
  • Smith, A. & Willebrand, T. 1999. Mortality causes and survival rates of hunted and unhunted willow grouse. J. Wildl. Manage. 63: 722730.
  • Smith, A., Redpath, S. & Campbell, S. 2000. The Influence of Moorland Management on Grouse and Their Predators. Bristol: DETR.
  • Smith, A., Redpath, S.M., Campbell, S.T. & Thirgood, S.J. 2001. Meadow pipits, red grouse and the habitat characteristics of managed grouse moors. J. Appl. Ecol. 38: 390400.
  • Solomon, M.E. 1949. The natural control of animal populations. J. Anim. Ecol. 18: 135.
  • Southwood, T.R.E. & Cross, D.J. 1969. The ecology of the partridge. III. Breeding success and the abundance of insects in natural habitats. J. Anim. Ecol. 38: 497509.
  • Star-UK. 2000. United Kingdom Tourism Survey. London: Star-UK.
  • Swann, R.L. & Etheridge, B. 1995. A comparison of breeding success and prey of the Common Buzzard Buteo buteo in two areas of northern Scotland. Bird Study 42: 3743.
  • Tapper, S.C. 1992. Game Heritage. Fordingbridge: Game Conservancy Trust.
  • Tapper, S.C. (ed.) 1999. A Question of Balance. Game Animals and Their Role in the British Countryside. Fordingbridge: Game Conservancy Trust.
  • Tapper, S.C., Potts, G.R. & Brockless, M.H. 1996. The effect of an experimental reduction in predation pressure on the breeding success and population density of grey partridges Perdix perdix. J. Appl. Ecol. 33: 965978.
  • Thirgood, S.J. & Redpath, S.M. 1997. Red Grouse and their predators. Nature 390: 547.
  • Thirgood, S.J., Redpath, S.M., Hudson, P.J. & Donnelly, E. 1998. Estimating the cause and rate of mortality in red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. Wildlife Biol.4: 6571.
  • Thirgood, S.J., Redpath, S.M., Haydon, D.T., Rothery, P., Newton, I. & Hudson, P.J. 2000a. Habitat loss and raptor predation: disentangling long- and short-term causes of Red Grouse declines. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 267: 651656.
  • Thirgood, S.J., Redpath, S.M., Rothery, P. & Aebischer, N.J. 2000b. Raptor predation and population limitation in red grouse. J. Anim. Ecol. 69: 504516.
  • Thompson, D.B.A., Macdonald, A.J., Marsden, J.H. & Galbraith, C.A. 1995. Upland heather moorland in Great Britain: a review of international importance, vegetation change and some objectives for nature conservation. Biol. Conserv. 71: 163178.
  • Thompson, D.B.A., Gillings, S.D., Galbraith, C.A., Redpath, S.M. & Drewitt, J. 1997. The contribution of grouse management to biodiversity: a review of the importance of grouse moors for upland birds. In Fleming, V., Newton, A.C., Vickery, J.A. & Usher, M.B. (eds) Biodiversity in Scotland: Status, Trends and Initiatives: 198212. Edinburgh: The Stationery Office.
  • Tjernberg, M. 1981. Diet of the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos during the breeding season in Sweden. Holarctic Ecol. 6: 1723.
  • Tornberg, R. 2001. Pattern of goshawk Accipiter gentilis predation on four forest grouse species in northern Finland. Wildlife Biol. 7: 245254.
  • Tornberg, R., Korpimäki, E., Jungell, S. & Reif, V. 2005. Delayed numerical response of goshawks to fluctuations of forest grouse. Oikos 111: 408415.
  • UK Raptor Working Group. 2000. Report of the UK Raptor Working Group. Bristol: DETR/JNCC.
  • Underhill-Day, J.C. 1985. The food of breeding Marsh Harriers Circus aeruginosus in East Anglia. Bird Study 32: 199206.
  • Underhill-Day, J.C. 1993. The foods and feeding rates of Montagu's Harriers Circus pygargus breeding in arable farmland. Bird Study 40: 7480.
  • Valkama, J., Korpimäki, E., Arroyo, B., Beja, P., Bretagnolle, V., Bro, E., Kenward, R., Mañosa, S, Redpath, S.M., Thirgood, S. & Viñuela, J. 2005. Birds of prey as limiting factors of gamebird populations in Europe: a review. Biol. Rev. 80: 171203.
  • Walters Davies, P. & Davis P.E. 1973. The ecology and conservation of the Red kites in Wales. Br. Birds 66: 241263.
  • Warren, P.K. & Baines, D. 2002. Dispersal, survival and causes of mortality in black grouse in northern England. Wildlife Biol. 8: 9197.
  • Watson, A. & Moss, R. 2004. Impacts of ski-development on ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) at Cairn Gorm, Scotland. Biol. Conserv. 116: 267275.
  • Watson, A., Moss, R. & Rae, S. 1998. Population dynamics of Scottish Rock Ptarmigan cycles. Ecology 79: 11741192.
  • Watson, J., Leith, A.F. & Rae, S.R. 1993. The diet of Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland. Ibis 135: 387393.
  • Watson, M. 2004. The Effects of Raptor Predation on Grey Partridges. DPhil Thesis, Linacre College Oxford.
  • Watson, M., Aebischer, N.J., Potts, G.R. & Ewald, J.A. 2007. The relative effects of raptor predation and shooting on overwinter mortality of grey partridges in the United Kingdom. J. Appl. Ecol. 44: 972982.
  • Widén, P. 1987. Goshawk predation during winter, spring and summer in a boreal forest area of central Sweden. Holarctic Ecol. 10: 104109.
  • Wildman, L., O'Toole, L. & Summers, R.W. 1998. The diet and foraging behaviour of the Red Kite in northern Scotland. Scottish Birds 19: 134140.
  • Willebrand, T. & Marcstrom, V. 1988. On the danger of using dummy nests to study predation. Auk 501: 6567.
  • Woodroffe, R., Thirgood, S. & Rabinowitz, A. 2005. The impact of human–wildlife conflict on natural systems. In Woodroffe, R., Thirgood, S. & Rabinowitz, A. (eds) People and Wildlife: 112. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.