Although male age has often been found to predict success in gaining extra-pair paternity, it is unclear whether this gain is associated with an individual’s success in avoiding cuckoldry. We examined the relationship between male age and both within- and extra-pair paternity in passerines using a meta-analytical approach. There was a positive correlation between male age and success in extra-pair paternity but little evidence for an association between male age and within-pair paternity. In addition, effect sizes for male within-pair paternity and male extra-pair paternity were not significantly correlated. Thus, factors that predict success in obtaining extra-pair paternity, such as male age, may not necessarily predict success in avoiding cuckoldry.