We describe Cinclodes espinhacensis (Furnariidae), a new species discovered at high elevation in the southern portion of the Espinhaço Range, in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. This new taxon is closely related to the Long-tailed Cinclodes Cinclodes pabsti, endemic to Serra Geral, southern Brazil. We present diagnostic morphological, genetic and vocal characters that support the rank of species for this allopatric taxon. It is readily distinguishable from C. pabsti by its much darker back, chest and flanks, lower body mass, shorter tarsus-length, lower frequency of vocalizations, and longer duration of calls. DNA sequence data estimate that the divergence time between this new species and Cinclodes pabsti occurred c. 220 000 years ago, during the late Pleistocene. This discovery illustrates remarkable biogeographical connections among the cold regions of South America. The new species has a restricted range and we suggest it meets the criteria of the IUCN Red List category of Endangered.