Cancer increases with age and often arises from the selective clonal growth of altered cells. Thus, any environment favoring clonal growth per se poses a higher risk for cancer development. Using a genetically tagged animal model, we investigated whether aging is associated with increased clonogenic potential. Groups of 4-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old Fischer 344 rats were infused (via the portal vein) with 2 × 106 hepatocytes isolated from a normal syngenic 2-month-old donor. Animals deficient in dipeptidyl-peptidase type IV (DPP-IV–) enzyme were used as recipients, allowing for the histochemical detection of injected DPP-IV+ cells. Groups of animals were sacrificed at various times thereafter. No growth of DPP-IV+ transplanted hepatocytes was present after either 2 or 6 months in the liver of rats transplanted at young age, as expected. In striking contrast, significant expansion of donor-derived cells was seen in animals transplanted at the age of 18 months: clusters comprising 7–10 DPP-IV+ hepatocytes/cross-section were present after 2 months and were markedly enlarged after 6 months (mean of 88 ± 35 cells/cluster/cross-section). These results indicate that the microenvironment of the aged liver supports the clonal expansion of transplanted normal hepatocytes. Such clonogenic environments can foster the selective growth of pre-existing altered cells, thereby increasing the overall risk for cancer development associated with aging.