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Fig. S1 Cardiac parameters in wild-type and dys mutants at 1 week, 3 weeks, 5 weeks and 7 weeks of age. (A) Mean heart period in seconds (s) &lsqb;±standard error of the mean (SEM)&rsqb; illustrating shorter heart period for dys mutants compared to age-matched controls yw/CantonS flies obtained from 1-min movies at the indicated ages; n &equals; 15–20 flies per data point. Note that dys8-2/dyskx43 flies show shorter heart period at 1–7 weeks old compare to age-matched controls, and dysExel6184/dyskx43 from 3-week-old on. Significant differences were determined by t-test; P values < 0.05 were considered significant (*). (B) Standard deviation of the heart period is used as a measure of the arrhythmicity (‘arrhythmicity index’). Note all time points (except 1-week-old) dys mutants are more rhythmical than the controls. (C) Mean diastolic intervals (±SEM) for dys mutants are shorter than the controls at different ages. Significant differences were determined by sample t-test. P values < 0.05 were considered significant (*P < 0.01). (D) Percentage of total flies showing asystolic episodes (diastolic intervals > 1.3 s) in 60-s movies. Significant differences were estimated by t-test, *P < 0.05. (E) Mesodermal knockdown of the dys long-form dystrophin-like products does not exhibit elevated heart failure rates in response to electrical pacing compared with controls dysRNAi/CantonS. The hetezygous dys flies dysExel6184/cantons do not show either an increase in heart failure compared to controls.

Fig. S2 (A, B, C) Heart parameters in wild-type and dys mutants. (A, B) Dystrophin-like product mutants dysExel6184/dyskx43 and dys8-2/dyskx43, as well as the heterozygotes dysExel6184/cantonS and dyskx43/cantonS have a larger diastolic (A) and systolic diameters (B) than age-matched controls. Significant differences were determined by t-test. P values < 0.05 were considered significant (*P < 0.0001; P < 0.001 for dysExel6184/cantons at 1-week-old and 7-week-old). (C) Plot of fractional shortening for the controls and dys mutants. The dys Exel6184/dyskx43 shows lower fractional shortening from younger age (1 week) to 5-week-old, whereas the mutant dys8-2/dyskx43 illustrates lower fractional shortening from 3-week-old. P values < 0.05 were considered significant (*P < 0.001 for 1 week; P < 0.0001 for 3 weeks and 5 weeks; dys8-2/dyskx43 at 7 weeks P < 0.05). Note the dilated hearts for dysExel6184/CantonS and dyskx43/CantonS do not show impairment in systolic function. All data are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean.

Suppl. movies: View of a beating adult cardiac tube for wild type and dys mutants flies (1 week old).

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