Aging is an important biological phenomenon and a major contributor to human disease and disability, but no drugs have been demonstrated to delay human aging. Caenorhabditis elegans is a valuable model for studies of animal aging, and the analysis of drugs that extend the lifespan of this animal can elucidate mechanisms of aging and might lead to treatments for age-related disease. By testing drugs that are Food and Drug Administration approved for human use, we discovered that the mood stabilizer and anticonvulsant valproic acid (VA) extended C. elegans lifespan. VA also delayed age-related declines of body movement, indicating that VA delays aging. Valproic acid is a small carboxylic acid that is the most frequently prescribed anticonvulsant drug in humans. A structure–activity analysis demonstrated that the related compound valpromide also extends lifespan. Valproic acid treatment may modulate the insulin/IGF-1 growth factor signaling pathway, because VA promoted dauer larvae formation and DAF-16 nuclear localization. To investigate the mechanism of action of VA in delaying aging, we analyzed the effects of combining VA with other compounds that extend the lifespan of C. elegans. Combined treatment of animals with VA and the heterocyclic anticonvulsant trimethadione caused a lifespan extension that was significantly greater than treatment with either of these drugs alone. These data suggest that the mechanism of action of VA is distinct from that of trimethadione, and demonstrate that lifespan-extending drugs can be combined to produce additive effects.