SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abel ED, Peroni O, Kim JK, Kim YB, Boss O, Hadro E, Minnemann T, Shulman GI, Kahn BB (2001) Adipose-selective targeting of the GLUT4 gene impairs insulin action in muscle and liver. Nature 409, 729733.
  • Ahima RS (2009) Connecting obesity, aging and diabetes. Nat. Med. 15, 996997.
  • Argmann C, Dobrin R, Heikkinen S, Auburtin A, Pouilly L, Cock TA, Koutnikova H, Zhu J, Schadt EE, Auwerx J (2009) Ppargamma2 is a key driver of longevity in the mouse. PLoS Genet. 5, e1000752.
  • Atzmon G, Pollin TI, Crandall J, Tanner K, Schechter CB, Scherer PE, Rincon M, Siegel G, Katz M, Lipton RB, Shuldiner AR, Barzilai N (2008) Adiponectin levels and genotype: a potential regulator of life span in humans. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 63, 447453.
  • Baker DJ, Jeganathan KB, Malureanu L, Perez-Terzic C, Terzic A, Van Deursen JM (2006) Early aging-associated phenotypes in Bub3/Rae1 haploinsufficient mice. J. Cell Biol. 172, 529540.
  • Baker DJ, Perez-Terzic C, Jin F, Pitel K, Niederländer NJ, Jeganathan K, Yamada S, Reyes S, Rowe L, Hiddinga HJ, Eberhardt NL, Terzic A, Van Deursen JM (2008) Opposing roles for p16Ink4a and p19Arf in senescence and ageing caused by BubR1 insufficiency. Nat. Cell Biol. 10, 825836.
  • Barzilai N, Gupta G (1999) Revisiting the role of fat mass in the life extension induced by caloric restriction. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 54, B89B96; discussion B97–88.
  • Barzilai N, She L, Liu B-Q, Vuguin P, Cohen P, Wang J, Rossetti L (1999) Surgical removal of visceral fat reverses hepatic insulin resistance. Diabetes 48, 9498.
  • Beausejour CM, Campisi J (2007) Ageing: balancing regeneration and cancer. Nature 443, 404405.
  • Ben-Porath I, Weinberg RA (2004) When cells get stressed: an integrative view of cellular senescence. J. Clin. Invest. 113, 813.
  • Berryman DE, List EO, Coschigano KT, Behar K, Kim JK, Kopchick JJ (2004) Comparing adiposity profiles in three mouse models with altered GH signaling. Growth Horm. IGF Res. 14, 309318.
  • Berryman DE, Christiansen JS, Johannsson G, Thorner MO, Kopchick JJ (2008) Role of the GH/IGF-1 axis in lifespan and healthspan: lessons from animal models. Growth Horm. IGF Res. 18, 455471.
  • Berryman DE, List EO, Palmer AJ, Chung MY, Wright-Piekarski J, Lubbers E, O’Connor P, Okada S, Kopchick JJ (2009) Two-year body composition analyses of long-lived GHR null mice. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 65, 3140.
  • Bertrand HA, Masoro EJ, Yu BP (1978) Increasing adipocyte number as the basis for perirenal depot growth in adult rats. Science 201, 12341235.
  • Bertrand HA, Lynd FT, Masoro EJ, Yu BP (1980) Changes in adipose mass and cellularity through the adult life of rats fed ad libitum or a life-prolonging restricted diet. J. Gerontol. 35, 827835.
  • Bjorntorp P (1990) Obesity and adipose tissue distribution as risk factors for the development of disease. A review. Infusionstherapie 17, 2427.
  • Bluher M, Kahn BB, Kahn CR (2003) Extended longevity in mice lacking the insulin receptor in adipose tissue. Science 299, 572574.
  • Boney CM, Sekimoto H, Gruppuso PA, Frackelton AR Jr (2001) Src family tyrosine kinases participate in insulin-like growth factor I mitogenic signaling in 3T3-L1 cells. Cell Growth Differ. 12, 379386.
  • Burgess-Beusse B, Timchenko NA, Darlington GJ (1999) CCAAT/enhancer binding protein a (C/EBPa) is an important mediator of mouse C/EBPb protein isoform production. Hepatology 29, 597601.
  • Campisi J (2000) Cancer, aging and cellular senescence. In Vivo 14, 183188.
  • Campisi J (2003) Cellular senescence and apoptosis: how cellular responses might influence aging phenotypes. Exp. Gerontol. 38, 511.
  • Campisi J (2004) Fragile fugue: p53 in aging, cancer, and IGF signaling. Nat. Med. 10, 231232.
  • Campisi J (2005) Senescent cells, tumor suppression, and organismal aging: good citizens, bad neighbors. Cell 120, 513522.
  • Carley AN, Severson DL (2005) Fatty acid metabolism is enhanced in type 2 diabetic hearts. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1734, 112126.
  • Caron M, Auclairt M, Vissian A, Vigouroux C, Capeau J (2008) Contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress to cellular premature senescence induced by antiretroviral thymidine analogues. Antivir. Ther. 13, 2738.
  • Carr DB, Utzschneider KM, Hull RL, Kodama K, Retzlaff BM, Brunzell JD, Shofer JB, Fish BE, Knopp RH, Kahn SE (2004) Intra-abdominal fat is a major determinant of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes 53, 20872094.
  • Cartwright MJ, Tchkonia T, Kirkland JL (2007) Aging in adipocytes: potential impact of inherent, depot-specific mechanisms. Exp. Gerontol. 42, 463471.
  • Cartwright M, Tchkonia T, Lenburg M, Pirtskhalava T, Cartwright A, Lopez MMA, Frampton G, Kirkland JL (2010) Aging, fat depot origin, and fat cell progenitor expression profiles: setting the stage for altered fat tissue function. J. Gerontol. 65, 242251.
  • Caserta F, Tchkonia T, Civelek V, Prentki M, Brown NF, McGarry JD, Forse RA, Corkey BE, Hamilton JA, Kirkland JL (2001) Fat depot origin affects fatty acid handling in cultured rat and human preadipocytes. Am. J. Physiol. 280, E238E247.
  • Chang GR, Chiu YS, Wu YY, Chen WY, Liao JW, Chao TH, Mao FC (2009) Rapamycin protects against high fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice. J. Pharmacol. Sci. 109, 496503.
  • Charalambous C, Virrey J, Kardosh A, Jabbour MN, Qazi-Abdullah L, Pen L, Zidovetzki R, Schonthal AH, Chen TC, Hofman FM (2007). Glioma-associated endothelial cells show evidence of replicative senescence. Exp. Cell Res. 313, 11921202.
  • Charriere G, Cousin B, Arnaud E, Andre M, Bacou F, Penicaud L, Casteilla L (2003) Preadipocyte conversion to macrophage. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 98509855.
  • Charriere GM, Cousin B, Arnaud E, Saillan-Barreau C, Andre M, Massoudi A, Dani C, Penicaud L, Casteilla L (2006) Macrophage characteristics of stem cells revealed by transcriptome profiling. Exp. Cell Res. 312, 32053214.
  • Chiu CH, Lin WD, Huang SY, Lee YH (2004) Effect of a C/EBP gene replacement on mitochondrial biogenesis in fat cells. Genes Dev. 18, 19701975.
  • Choi J, Shendrik I, Peacocke M, Peehl D, Buttyan R, Ikeguchi EF, Katz AE, Benson MC (2000) Expression of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase in enlarged prostates from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology 56, 160166.
  • Chung S, Lapoint K, Martinez K, Kennedy A, Boysen Sandberg M, McIntosh MK (2006) Preadipocytes mediate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in primary cultures of newly differentiated human adipocytes. Endocrinology 147, 53405351.
  • Cinti S, Mitchell G, Barbatelli G, Murano I, Ceresi E, Faloia E, Wang S, Fortier M, Greenberg AS, Obin MS (2005) Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans. J. Lipid Res. 46, 23472355.
  • Clarke SL, Robinson CE, Gimble JM (1997) CAAT/enhancer binding proteins directly modulate transcription from the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 promoter. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 240, 99103.
  • Colditz GA, Willett WC, Rotnitzky A, Manson JE (1995) Weight gain as a risk factor for clinical diabetes mellitus in women. Ann. Intern. Med. 122, 481486.
  • Coppé JP, Patil C, Rodier F, Sun Y, Muñoz DP, Goldstein J, Nelson PS, Desprez PY, Campisi J (2008) Senescence-associated secretory phenotypes reveal cell-nonautonomous functions of oncogenic RAS and the p53 tumor suppressor. PLoS Biol. 6, 28532868.
  • Cousin B, Munoz O, Andre M, Fontanilles AM, Dani C, Cousin JL, Laharrague P, Casteilla L, Penicaud L (1999) A role for preadipocytes as macrophage-like cells. FASEB J. 13, 305312.
  • Crossno JT, Majka SM, Grazia T, Gill RG, Klemm DJ (2006) Rosiglitazone promotes development of a novel adipocyte population from bone marrow-derived circulating progenitor cells. J. Clin. Invest. 116, 32203228.
  • Curat CA, Miranville A, Sengenes C, Diehl M, Tonus C, Busse R, Bouloumie A (2004) From blood monocytes to adipose tissue-resident macrophages. Diabetes 53, 12851292.
  • Cypess AM, Lehman S, Williams G, Tal I, Rodman D, Goldfine AB, Kuo FC, Palmer EL, Tseng YH, Doria A, Kolodny GM, Kahn CR (2009) Identification and importance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans. N. Engl. J. Med. 360, 15091517.
  • Das M, Gabriely I, Barzilai N (2004) Caloric restriction, body fat and ageing in experimental models. Obes. Rev. 5, 1319.
  • De Pergola G, Pannacciulli N (2002) Coagulation and fibrinolysis abnormalities in obesity. J. Endocrinol. Invest. 25, 899904.
  • DeFronzo RA (2004) Dysfunctional fat cells, lipotoxicity and type 2 diabetes. Int. J. Clin. Pract. 2004, 921.
  • Denke MA, Sempos CT, Grundy SM (1993) Excess body weight. An underrecognized contributor to high blood cholesterol levels in white American men. Arch. Intern. Med. 153, 10931103.
  • Denke MA, Sempos CT, Grundy SM (1994) Excess body weight. An under-recognized contributor to dyslipidemia in white American women. Arch. Intern. Med. 154, 401410.
  • Djian P, Roncari DAK, Hollenberg CH (1983) Influence of anatomic site and age on the replication and differentiation of rat adipocyte precursors in culture. J. Clin. Invest. 72, 12001208.
  • Dubois SG, Heilbronn LK, Smith SR, Albu JB, Kelley DE, Ravussin E (2006) Decreased expression of adipogenic genes in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Obesity 14, 15431552.
  • Einstein FH, Atzmon G, Yang XM, Ma XH, Rincon M, Rudin E, Muzumdar R, Barzilai N (2005) Differential responses of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots to nutrients. Diabetes 54, 672678.
  • El Jack AK, Hamm JK, Pilch PF, Farmer SR (1999) Reconstitution of insulin-sensitive glucose transport in fibroblasts requires expression of both PPARg and C/EBPa. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 79467951.
  • Fain JN, Tagele BM, Cheema P, Madan AK, Tichansky DS (2009) Release of 12 adipokines by adipose tissue, nonfat cells, and fat cells from obese women. Obesity (Silver Spring) 18, 890896.
  • Farmer SR (2005) Regulation of PPARgamma activity during adipogenesis. Int. J. Obes. 29(Suppl. 1), S13S16.
  • Ferri C, Desideri G, Valenti M, Bellini C, Pasin M, Santucci A, De Mattia G (1999) Early upregulation of endothelial adhesion molecules in obese hypertensive men. Hypertension 34, 568573.
  • Feuerer M, Herrero L, Cipolletta D, Naaz A, Wong J, Nayer A, Lee J, Goldfine AB, Benoist C, Shoelson S, Mathis D (2009) Lean, but not obese, fat is enriched for a unique population of regulatory T cells that affect metabolic parameters. Nat. Med. 15, 930939.
  • Freund A, Orjalo AV, Desprez PY, Campisi J (2010) Inflammatory networks during cellular senescence: causes and consequences. Trends Mol. Med. 16, 238246.
  • Fried S, Kral J (1987) Sex differences in regional distribution of fat cell size and lipoprotein lipase activity in morbidly obese patients. Int. J. Obes. 11, 129140.
  • Fried SK, Bunkin DA, Greenberg AS (1998) Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese subjects release interleukin-6: depot difference and regulation by glucocorticoid. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83, 847850.
  • Gabaldon AM, McDonald RB, Horwitz BA (1998) Effects of age, gender, and senescence on beta-adrenergic responses of isolated F344 rat brown adipocytes in vitro. Am. J. Physiol. 274, E726E736.
  • Gabaldon AM, Gavel DA, Hamilton JS, McDonald RB, Horwitz BA (2003) Norepinephrine release in brown adipose tissue remains robust in cold-exposed senescent Fischer 344 rats. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 285, R91R98.
  • Gabriely I, Ma XH, Yang XM, Atzmon G, Rajala MW, Berg AH, Scherer PE, Rossetti L, Barzilai N (2002) Removal of visceral fat prevents insulin resistance and glucose intolerance of aging: an adipokine-mediated process? Diabetes 51, 29512958.
  • Garg A, Agarwal AK (2009) Lipodystrophies: disorders of adipose tissue biology. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1791, 507513.
  • Gregerman RI (1994) Aging and hormone sensitive lipolysis: reconciling the literature. J. Gerontol. 49, B135B139.
  • Gross K, Karagiannides I, Thomou T, Koon HW, Bowe C, Kim H, Giorgadze N, Tchkonia T, Pirtskhalava T, Kirkland JL, Pothoulakis C (2009) Substance P promotes expansion of human mesenteric preadipocytes through proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 296, G1012G1019.
  • Guo SS, Zeller C, Chumlea WC, Siervogel RM (1999) Aging, body composition, and lifestyle: the Fels Longitudinal Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70, 405411.
  • Guo W, Pirtskhalava T, Tchkonia T, Xie W, Thomou T, Han J, Wang T, Wong S, Cartwright A, Hegardt FG, Corkey BE, Kirkland JL (2007) Aging results in paradoxical susceptibility of fat cell progenitors to lipotoxicity. Am. J. Physiol. 292, E1041E1051.
  • Gustafson B, Gogg S, Hedjazifar S, Jenndahl L, Hammarstedt A, Smith U (2009) Inflammation and impaired adipogenesis in hypertrophic obesity in man. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. July 21 (Epub ahead of print).
  • Hamm JK, Park BH, Farmer SR (2001) A role for C/EBPa in regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorg activity during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 1846418471.
  • Van Harmelen V, Skurk T, Rohrig K, Lee YM, Halbleib M, Aprath-Husmann I, Hauner H (2003) Effect of BMI and age on adipose tissue cellularity and differentiation capacity in women. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 27, 889895.
  • Harris TB, Ferrucci L, Tracy RP, Corti MC, Wacholder S, Ettinger Jr WH, Heimovitz H, Cohen HJ, Wallace R (1999) Associations of elevated interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels with mortality in the elderly. Am. J. Med. 106, 506512.
  • Harrison DE, Strong R, Sharp ZD, Nelson JF, Astle CM, Flurkey K, Nadon NL, Wilkinson JE, Frenkel K, Carter CS, Pahor M, Javors MA, Fernandez E, Miller RA (2009) Rapamycin fed late in life extends lifespan in genetically heterogeneous mice. Nature 460, 392395.
  • Hayflick L, Moorehead P (1961) The serial cultivation of human diploid strains. Exp. Cell Res. 25, 585621.
  • Higami Y, Barger JL, Page GP, Allison DB, Smith SR, Prolla TA, Weindruch R (2006) Energy restriction lowers the expression of genes linked to inflammation, the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix, and angiogenesis in mouse adipose tissue. J. Nutr. 136, 343352.
  • Hollenberg AN, Susulic VS, Madura JP, Zhang B, Moller DE, Tontonoz P, Sarraf P, Spiegelman BM, Lowell BB (1997) Functional antagonism between CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-a and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g on the leptin promoter. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 52835290.
  • Hong KM, Burdick MD, Phillips RJ, Heber D, Stieter RM (2005) Characterization of human fibrocytes as circulating adipocyte progenitors and the formation of human adipose tissue in SCID mice. FASEB J. 19, 20292031.
  • Hotamisligil GS, Spiegelman BM (1994) Tumor necrosis factor alpha: a key component of the obesity-diabetes link. Diabetes 43, 12711278.
  • Hotta K, Bodkin NL, Gustafson TA, Yoshioka S, Ortmeyer HK, Hansen BC (1999) Age-related adipose tissue mRNA expression of ADD1/SREBP1, PPARg, lipoprotein lipase, and GLUT4 glucose transporter in rhesus monkeys. J. Gerontol. 54A, B183B188.
  • Hu E, Tontonoz P, Spiegelman BM (1995) Transdifferentiation of myoblasts by the adipogenic transcription factors PPARg and C/EBPa. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 92, 98569860.
  • Huffman DM, Barzilai N (2009) Role of visceral adipose tissue in aging. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1790, 11171123.
  • Hughes VA, Roubenoff R, Wood M, Frontera WR, Evans WJ, Fiatarone Singh MA (2004) Anthropometric assessment of 10-y changes in body composition in the elderly. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80, 475482.
  • Jerschow E, Anwar S, Barzilai N, Rosenstreich D (2007) Macrophages accumulation in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue correlates with age. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 119(Suppl. 1), S179.
  • Jeyapalan JC, Sedivy JM (2008) Cellular senescence and organismal aging. Mech. Ageing Dev. 129, 467474.
  • Jilka RL, Weinstein RS, Takahashi K, Parfitt AM, Manolagas SC (1996) Linkage of decreased bone mass with impaired osteoblastogenesis in a murine model of accelerated senescence. J. Clin. Invest. 97, 17321740.
  • Karagiannides I, Tchkonia T, Dobson DE, Steppan CM, Cummins P, Chan G, Salvatori K, Hadzopoulou-Cladaras M, Kirkland JL (2001) Altered expression of C/EBP family members results in decreased adipogenesis with aging. Am. J. Physiol. 280, R1772R1780.
  • Karagiannides I, Kokkotou E, Tansky M, Tchkonia T, Giorgadze N, O’Brien M, Leeman SE, Kirkland JL, Pothoulakis C (2006a) Induction of colitis causes inflammatory responses in fat depots: evidence for substance P pathways in human mesenteric preadipocytes. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 52075212.
  • Karagiannides I, Thomou T, Tchkonia T, Pirtskhalava T, Kypreos KE, Cartwright A, Dalagiorgou G, Lash TL, Farmer SR, Timchenko NA, Kirkland JL (2006b) Increased CUG triplet repeat binding protein-1 predisposes to impaired adipogenesis with aging. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 2302523033.
  • Keyes WM, Wu Y, Vogel H, Guo X, Lowe SW, Mills AA (2006) p63 deficiency activates a program of cellular senescence and leads to accelerated aging. Genes Dev. 19, 19861999.
  • Kim JY, Van De Wall E, Laplante M, Azzara A, Trujillo ME, Hofmann SM, Schraw T, Durand JL, Li H, Li G, Jelicks LA, Mehler MF, Hui DY, Deshaies Y, Shulman GI, Schwartz GJ, Scherer PE (2007) Obesity-associated improvements in metabolic profile through expansion of adipose tissue. J. Clin. Invest. 117, 26212637.
  • Kintscher U, Hartge M, Hess K, Foryst-Ludwig A, Clemenz M, Wabitsch M, Fischer-Posovszky P, Barth TF, Dragun D, Skurk T, Hauner H, Bluher M, Unger T, Wolf AM, Knippschild U, Hombach V, Marx N (2008) T-lymphocyte infiltration in visceral adipose tissue: a primary event in adipose tissue inflammation and the development of obesity-mediated insulin resistance. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 28, 13041310.
  • Kirkland JL, Dax EM (1984) Adipose hormone responsiveness and aging in the rat. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 32, 219228.
  • Kirkland JL, Dobson DE (1997) Preadipocyte function and aging: links between age-related changes in cell dynamics and altered fat cell function. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 45, 959967.
  • Kirkland JL, Hollenberg CH (1998) Inhibitors of preadipocyte replication: opportunities for the treatment of obesity. Prog. Mol. Subcell. Biol. 22, 177195.
  • Kirkland JL, Hollenberg CH, Gillon WS (1990) Age, anatomic site, and the replication and differentiation of adipocyte precursors. Am. J. Physiol. 258, C206C210.
  • Kirkland JL, Hollenberg CH, Gillon WS (1993) Ageing, differentiation, and gene expression in rat epididymal preadipocytes. Biochem. Cell Biol. 71, 556561.
  • Kirkland JL, Hollenberg CH, Kindler S, Gillon WS (1994) Effects of age and anatomic site on preadipocyte number in rat fat depots. J. Gerontol. 49, B31B35.
  • Kirkland JL, Cummins P, Steppan C, Dobson DE, Cladaras MH (1997) Decreasing preadipocyte differentiation capacity with aging is associated with blunted expression of the transcription factor, CCAAT enhancer binding protein a. Obes. Res. 5(Suppl. 1), 22S.
  • Kirkland JL, Tchkonia T, Pirtskhalava T, Han J, Karagiannides I (2002) Adipogenesis and aging: does aging make fat go MAD? Exp. Gerontol. 37, 757767.
  • Kirkland JL, Tchkonia T, Giorgadze N, Pirtskhalava T (2003) Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ: regional differences in adipocyte endocrine function. Prog. Obes. Res. 9, 8795.
  • Klein S, Fontana L, Young VL, Coggan AR, Kilo C, Patterson BW, Mohammed BS (2004) Absence of an effect of liposuction on insulin action and risk factors for coronary heart disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 350, 25492557.
  • Koster A, Stenholm S, Alley DE, Kim LJ, Simonsick EM, Kanaya AM, Visser M, Houston DK, Nicklas BJ, Tylavsky FA, Satterfield S, Goodpaster BH, Ferrucci L, Harris TB (2010) Body fat distribution and inflammation among obese older adults with and without metabolic syndrome. Obesity (Silver Spring) Apr 15 (Epub ahead of print).
  • Kotani K, Tokunaga K, Fujioka S, Kobatake T, Keno Y, Yoshida S, Shimomura I, Tarui S, Matsuzawa Y (1994) Sexual dimorphism of age-related changes in whole-body fat distribution in the obese. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 18, 207212.
  • Koutsari C, Ali AH, Nair KS, Rizza RA, O’Brien P, Khosla S, Jensen MD (2009) Fatty acid metabolism in the elderly: effects of dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone replacement in hormonally deficient men and women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 94, 34143423.
  • Kralisch S, Weise S, Sommer G, Lipfert J, Lossner U, Bluher M, Stumvoll M, Fasshauer M (2009) Interleukin-1beta induces the novel adipokine chemerin in adipocytes in vitro. Regul. Pept. 154, 102106.
  • Krishnamurthy J, Torrice C, Ramsey MR, Kovalev GI, Al-Regaiey K, Su L, Sharpless NE (2004) Ink4a/Arf expression is a biomarker of aging. J. Clin. Invest. 114, 12991307.
  • Krtolica A, Campisi J (2002) Cancer and aging: a model for the cancer promoting effects of the aging stroma. Int. J. Cell Biol. 34, 14011414.
  • Kuilman T, Peeper DS (2009) Senescence-messaging secretome: SMS-ing cellular stress. Nat. Rev. Cancer 9, 8194.
  • Kuilman T, Michaloglou C, Vredeveld LC, Douma S, Van Doorn R, Desmet CJ, Aarden LA, Mooi WJ, Peeper DS (2008) Oncogene-induced senescence relayed by an interleukin-dependent inflammatory network. Cell 133, 958961.
  • Kuk JL, Saunders TJ, Davidson LE, Ross R (2009) Age-related changes in total and regional fat distribution. Ageing Res. Rev. 8, 339348.
  • Kyle UG, Genton L, Hans D, Karsegard L, Slosman DO, Pichard C (2001) Age-related differences in fat-free mass, skeletal muscle, body cell mass and fat mass between 18 and 94 years. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 55, 663672.
  • Lacasa D, Taleb S, Keophiphath M, Miranville A, Clement K (2007) Macrophage-secreted factors impair human adipogenesis: involvement of proinflammatory state in preadipocytes. Endocrinology 148, 868877.
  • Lean ME (2000) Pathophysiology of obesity. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 59, 331336.
  • Lelliott C, Vidal-Puig AJ (2004) Lipotoxicity, an imbalance between lipogenesis de novo and fatty acid oxidation. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 28(Suppl. 4), S22S28.
  • Lim S, Yoon JW, Choi SH, Park YJ, Lee JJ, Park JH, Lee SB, Kim KW, Lim JY, Kim YB, Park KS, Lee HK, Cho SI, Jang HC (2010) Combined impact of adiponectin and retinol-binding protein 4 on metabolic syndrome in elderly people: the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging. Obesity (Silver Spring) 18, 826832.
  • Lin FT, Lane MD (1994) CCAAT/enhancer binding protein a is sufficient to initiate the 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation program. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 91, 87578761.
  • Lin Y, Lee H, Berg AH, Listani MP, Shapiro L, Scherer PE (2000) LPS activated TLR-4 receptor induces the synthesis of the closely related receptor TLR-2 in adipocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 2425524263.
  • Listenberger LL, Han H, Lewis SE, Cases S, Farese RV, Ory DS (2003) Triglyceride accumulation protects against fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 100, 30773082.
  • Liu J, Divoux A, Sun J, Zhang J, Clement K, Glickman JN, Sukhova GK, Wolters PJ, Du J, Gorgun CZ, Doria A, Libby P, Blumberg RS, Kahn BB, Hotamisligil GS, Shi GP (2009) Genetic deficiency and pharmacological stabilization of mast cells reduce diet-induced obesity and diabetes in mice. Nat. Med. 15, 940945.
  • Loffreda S, Yang SQ, Lin HZ, Karp CL, Brengman ML, Wang DJ, Klein AS, Bulkley GB, Bao C, Noble PW, Lane MD, Diehl AM (1998) Leptin regulates proinflammatory immune responses. FASEB J. 12, 5765.
  • Lowell BB (1999) PPARg: an essential regulator of adipogenesis and modulator of fat cell function. Cell 99, 239242.
  • Lumeng CN, Maillard I, Saltiel AR (2009) T-ing up inflammation in fat. Nat. Med. 15, 846847.
  • Lutz W, Sanderson W, Scherbov S (2008) The coming acceleration of global population ageing. Nature 451, 716719.
  • Mack I, BelAiba RS, Djordjevic T, Gorlach A, Hauner H, Bader BL (2009) Functional analyses reveal the greater potency of preadipocytes compared with adipocytes as endothelial cell activator under normoxia, hypoxia, and TNFalpha exposure. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 297, E735E748.
  • Martin GM (2009) Epigenetic gambling and epigenetic drift as an antagonistic pleiotropic mechanism of aging. Aging Cell 8, 761764.
  • Martin-Ruiz C, Saretzki G, Petrie J, Ladhoff J, Jeyapalan J, Wei W, Sedivy J, Von Zglinicki T (2004) Stochastic variation in telomere shortening rate causes heterogeneity of human fibroblast replicative lifespan. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 1782617833.
  • Masoro EJ (2006) Caloric restriction and aging: controversial issues. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 61, 1419.
  • Matsuzawa Y, Shimomura I, Nakamura T, Keno Y, Kotani K, Tokunaga K (1995) Pathophysiology and pathogenesis of visceral fat obesity. Obes. Res. 3(Suppl. 2), 187S194S.
  • McDonald RB, Horwitz BA (1999) Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis during aging and senescence. J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 31, 507516.
  • Meunier P, Aaron J, Edouard C, Vignon G (1971) Osteoporosis and the replacement of cell populations of the marrow by adipose tissue. A quantitative study of 84 iliac bone biopsies. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 80, 147154.
  • Miard S, Picard F (2008) Obesity and aging have divergent genomic fingerprints. Int. J. Obes. (Lond.) 32, 18731874.
  • Mimura T, Joyce NC (2006) Replication competence and senescence in central and peripheral human corneal endothelium. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 13871396.
  • Minamino T, Orimo M, Shimizu I, Kunieda T, Yokoyama M, Ito T, Nojima A, Nabetani A, Oike Y, Matsubara H, Ishikawa F, Komuro I (2009) A crucial role for adipose tissue p53 in the regulation of insulin resistance. Nat. Med. 15, 10821087.
  • Morin CL, Pagliassotti MJ, Windmiller D, Eckel RH (1997) Adipose tissue-derived tumor necrosis factor-a activity is elevated in older rats. J. Gerontol. 52A, B190B195.
  • Morley JE (2004) The metabolic syndrome and aging. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 59, 139142.
  • Mu XC, Higgins PJ (1995) Differential growth state-dependent regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 expression in senescent IMR-90 human diploid fibroblasts. J. Cell. Physiol. 165, 647657.
  • Muzumdar R, Allison DB, Huffman DM, Ma X, Atzmon G, Einstein FH, Fishman S, Poduval AD, McVei T, Keith SW, Barzilai N (2008) Visceral adipose tissue modulates mammalian longevity. Aging Cell 7, 438440.
  • Nadler ST, Stoehr JP, Schueler KL, Tanimoto G, Yandell BS, Attie AD (2000) The expression of adipogenic genes is decreased in obesity and diabetes mellitus. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 97, 1137111376.
  • Nair S, Lee YH, Rousseau E, Cam M, Tataranni PA, Baier LJ, Bogardus C, Permana PA (2005) Increased expression of inflammation-related genes in cultured preadipocytes/stromal vascular cells from obese compared with non-obese Pima Indians. Diabetologia 48, 17841788.
  • Narita M, Lowe SW (2005) Senescence comes of age. Nat. Med. 11, 920922.
  • Narita M, Nunez S, Heard E, Narita M, Lin AW, Hearn SA, Spector DL, Hannon GJ, Lowe SW (2003) Rb-mediated heterochromatin formation and silencing of E2F target genes during cellular senescence. Cell 113, 703716.
  • Nishimura S, Manabe I, Nagasaki M, Eto K, Yamashita H, Ohsugi M, Otsu M, Hara K, Ueki K, Sugiura S, Yoshimura K, Kadowaki T, Nagai R (2009) CD8+ effector T cells contribute to macrophage recruitment and adipose tissue inflammation in obesity. Nat. Med. 15, 914920.
  • Noer A, Lindeman LC, Collas P (2009) Histone H3 modifications associated with differentiation and long-term culture of mesenchymal adipose stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. 18, 725736.
  • Palmer AJ, Chung MY, List EO, Walker J, Okada S, Kopchick JJ, Berryman DE (2009) Age-related changes in body composition of bovine growth hormone transgenic mice. Endocrinology 150, 13531360.
  • Parrinello S, Coppe JP, Krtolica A, Campisi J (2005) Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation. J. Cell Sci. 118, 485496.
  • Passos JF, Nelson G, Wang C, Richter T, Simillion C, Proctor CJ, Miwa S, Olijslagers S, Hallinan J, Wipat A, Saretzki G, Rudolph KL, Kirkwood TB, Von Zglinicki T (2010) Feedback between p21 and reactive oxygen production is necessary for cell senescence. Mol. Syst. Biol. 6, 347.
  • Passos JF, Saretzki G, Ahmed S, Nelson G, Richter T, Peters H, Wappler I, Birkett M, Harold G, Schaeuble K, Birch-Machin M, Kirkwood T, Von Zglinicki T (2007) Mitochondrial dysfunction accounts for the stochastic heterogeneity In telomere-dependent senescence. PLoS Biol. 5, e110.
  • Passos JF, Simillion C, Hallinan J, Wipat A, Von Zglinicki T (2009) Cellular senescence: unravelling complexity. Age (Dordr.) July 18 (Epub ahead of print).
  • Patsouris D, Li PP, Thapar D, Chapman J, Olefsky JM, Neels JG (2008) Ablation of CD11c-positive cells normalizes insulin sensitivity in obese insulin resistant animals. Cell Metab. 8, 301309.
  • Permana PA, Nair S, Lee YH, Luczy-Bachman G, Vozarova de Courten B, Tataranni PA (2004) Subcutaneous abdominal preadipocyte differentiation in vitro inversely correlates with central obesity. Am. J. Physiol. 286, E958E962.
  • Perreault M, Marette A (2001) Targeted disruption of inducible nitric oxide synthase protects against obesity-linked insulin resistance in muscle. Nat. Med. 7, 11381143.
  • Pischon T, Boeing H, Hoffmann K, Bergmann M, Schulze MB, Overvad K, Van Der Schouw YT, Spencer E, Moons KG, Tjonneland A, Halkjaer J, Jensen MK, Stegger J, Clavel-Chapelon F, Boutron-Ruault MC, Chajes V, Linseisen J, Kaaks R, Trichopoulou A, Trichopoulos D, Bamia C, Sieri S, Palli D, Tumino R, Vineis P, Panico S, Peeters PH, May AM, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Van Duijnhoven FJ, Hallmans G, Weinehall L, Manjer J, Hedblad B, Lund E, Agudo A, Arriola L, Barricarte A, Navarro C, Martinez C, Quiros JR, Key T, Bingham S, Khaw KT, Boffetta P, Jenab M, Ferrari P, Riboli E (2008) General and abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe. N. Engl. J. Med. 359, 21052120.
  • Poehls J, Wassel CL, Harris TB, Havel PJ, Swarbrick MM, Cummings SR, Newman AB, Satterfield S, Kanaya AM (2009) Association of adiponectin with mortality in older adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Diabetologia 52, 591595.
  • Rabkin SW (2007) Epicardial fat: properties, function and relationship to obesity. Obes. Rev. 8, 253261.
  • Raguso CA, Kyle U, Kossovsky MP, Roynette C, Paoloni-Giacobino A, Hans D, Genton L, Pichard C (2006) A 3-year longitudinal study on body composition changes in the elderly: role of physical exercise. Clin. Nutr. 25, 573580.
  • Rizza S, Gigli F, Galli A, Micchelini B, Lauro D, Lauro R, Federici M (2010) Adiponectin isoforms in elderly patients with or without coronary artery disease. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 58, 702706.
  • Rosen ED (2005) The transcriptional basis of adipocyte development. Prost. Leu. Essential FA. 73, 3134.
  • Rosen CJ, Ackert-Bicknell C, Rodriguez JP, Pino AM (2009) Marrow fat and the bone microenvironment: developmental, functional, and pathological implications. Crit. Rev. Eukaryot. Gene Expr. 19, 109124.
  • Saberi M, Woods NB, De Luca C, Schenk S, Lu JC, Bandyopadhyay G, Verma IM, Olefsky JM (2009) Hematopoietic cell-specific deletion of toll-like receptor 4 ameliorates hepatic and adipose tissue insulin resistance in high-fat-fed mice. Cell Metab. 10, 419429.
  • Samad F, Yamamoto K, Loskutoff DJ (1996) Distribution and regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in murine adipose tissue in vivo. Induction by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and lipopolysaccharide. J. Clin. Invest. 97, 3746.
  • Samad F, Yamamoto K, Pandey M, Loskutoff DJ (1997) Elevated expression of transforming growth factor-beta in adipose tissue from obese mice. Mol. Med. 3, 3748.
  • Samad F, Pandey M, Loskutoff DJ (1998) Tissue factor gene expression in the adipose tissues of obese mice. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 95, 75917596.
  • Samaras K, Botelho NK, Chisholm DJ, Lord RV (2010) Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue gene expression of serum adipokines that predict type 2 diabetes. Obesity (Silver Spring) 18, 884889.
  • Sartipy P, Loskutoff DJ (2003) Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in obesity and insulin resistance. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 100, 72657270.
  • Schipper BM, Marra KG, Zhang W, Donnenberg AD, Rubin JP (2008) Regional anatomic and age effects on cell function of human adipose-derived stem cells. Ann. Plast. Surg. 60, 538544.
  • Sebastian C, Lloberas J, Celada A (2009). Molecular and cellular aspects of macrophage aging. In Handbook on Immunosenescence. (TFulop, ed.). Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., pp. 919945.
  • Sekimoto H, Eipper-Mains J, Pond-Tor S, Boney CM (2005) (alpha)v(beta)3 integrins and Pyk2 mediate insulin-like growth factor I activation of Src and mitogen-activated protein kinase in 3T3-L1 cells. Mol. Endocrinol. 19, 18591867.
  • Selman C, Lingard S, Choudhury AI, Batterham RL, Claret M, Clements M, Ramadani F, Okkenhaug K, Schuster E, Blanc E, Piper MD, Al-Qassab H, Speakman JR, Carmignac D, Robinson IC, Thornton JM, Gems D, Partridge L, Withers DJ (2008) Evidence for lifespan extension and delayed age-related biomarkers in insulin receptor substrate 1 null mice. FASEB J. 22, 807818.
  • Selman C, Tullet JM, Wieser D, Irvine E, Lingard SJ, Choudhury AI, Claret M, Al-Qassab H, Carmignac D, Ramadani F, Woods A, Robinson IC, Schuster E, Batterham RL, Kozma SC, Thomas G, Carling D, Okkenhaug K, Thornton JM, Partridge L, Gems D, Withers DJ (2009) Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 signaling regulates mammalian life span. Science 326, 140144.
  • Semple RK, Crowley VC, Sewter CP, Laudes M, Christodoulides C, Considine RV, Vidal-Puig A, O’Rahilly S (2004) Expression of the thermogenic nuclear hormone receptor coactivator PGC-1alpha is reduced in the adipose tissue of morbidly obese subjects. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 28, 176179.
  • Sherr CJ, DePinho RA (2000) Cellular senescence: mitotic clock or culture shock? Cell 102, 407410.
  • Shillabeer G, Forden JM, Russell JC, Lau DC (1990) Paradoxically slow preadipocyte replication and differentiation in corpulent rats. Am. J. Physiol. 258, E368E376.
  • Silver AJ, Guillen CP, Kahl MJ, Morley JE (1993) Effect of aging on body fat. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 41, 211213.
  • Slawik M, Vidal-Puig AJ (2006) Lipotoxicity, overnutrition and energy metabolism in aging. Ageing Res. Rev. 5, 144164.
  • Sokolov MV, Dickey JS, Bonner WM, Sedelnikova OA (2007) gamma-H2AX in bystander cells: not just a radiation-triggered event, a cellular response to stress mediated by intercellular communication. Cell Cycle 6, 22102212.
  • Starr ME, Evers BM, Saito H (2009) Age-associated increase in cytokine production during systemic inflammation: adipose tissue as a major source of IL-6. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 64, 723730.
  • Stenholm S, Koster A, Alley DE, Visser M, Maggio M, Harris TB, Egan JM, Bandinelli S, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L (2009) Adipocytokines and the metabolic syndrome among older persons with and without obesity – the InCHIANTI Study. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) Oct 31 (Epub ahead of print).
  • Stout RD, Suttles J (2005) Immunosenescence and macrophage functional plasticity: dysregulation of macrophage function by age-associated microenvironmental changes. Immunol. Rev. 205, 6071.
  • Strissel K, Stancheva Z, Miyoshi H, Perfield JW, Defuria J, Jick Z, Greenberg AS, Obin MS (2007) Adipocyte death, adipose tissue remodeling and obesity complications. Diabetes 56, 29102918.
  • Suganami T, Nishida J, Ogawa Y (2005) A paracrine loop between adipocytes and macrophages aggravates inflammatory changes: role of free fatty acids and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 25, 20622068.
  • Takahashi K, Mizuarai S, Araki H, Mashiko S, Ishihara A, Kanatani A, Itadani H, Kotani H (2003) Adiposity elevates plasma MCP-1 levels leading to the increased CD11b-positive monocytes in mice. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 4665446660.
  • Tang W, Zeve D, Suh JM, Bosnakovski D, Kyba M, Hammer RE, Tallquist MD, Graff JM (2008) White fat progenitor cells reside in the adipose vasculature. Science 322, 583586.
  • Taylor-Jones JM, McGehee RE, Rando TA, Lecka-Czernik B, Lipschitz D, Peterson CA (2002) Activation of an adipogenic program in adult skeletal muscle myoblasts with age. Mech. Ageing Dev. 123, 649661.
  • Tchkonia T, Karagiannides I, Forse RA, Kirkland JL (2001) Different fat depots are distinct mini-organs. Curr. Opin. Endocrinol. Diabetes 8, 227234.
  • Tchkonia T, Giorgadze N, Pirtskhalava T, Tchoukalova Y, Karagiannides I, Forse RA, DePonte M, Stevenson M, Guo W, Han J, Waloga G, Lash TL, Jensen MD, Kirkland JL (2002) Fat depot origin affects adipogenesis in primary cultured and cloned human preadipocytes. Am. J. Physiol. 282, R1286R1296.
  • Tchkonia T, Tchoukalova YD, Giorgadze N, Pirtskhalava T, Karagiannides I, Forse RA, Koo A, Stevenson M, Chinnappan D, Cartwright A, Jensen MD, Kirkland JL (2005) Abundance of two human preadipocyte subtypes with distinct capacities for replication, adipogenesis, and apoptosis varies among fat depots. Am. J. Physiol. 288, E267E277.
  • Tchkonia T, Corkey BE, Kirkland JL (2006a) Current views of the fat cell as an endocrine cell: lipotoxicity. Endocr. Updates 26, 105118.
  • Tchkonia T, Giorgadze N, Pirtskhalava T, Thomou T, DePonte M, Koo A, Forse RA, Chinnappan D, Carmen Martin-Ruiz C, Von Zglinicki T, Kirkland JL (2006b) Fat depot-specific characteristics are retained in strains derived from single human preadipocytes. Diabetes 55, 25712578.
  • Tchkonia T, Cartwright M, Wise B, Pirtskhalava T, Karagiannides I, Shpilman A, Beckerer D, Kirkland JL (2007a) Increased TNFa and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) with aging predispose preadipocytes to resist adipogenesis. Am. J. Physiol. 293, E1810E1819.
  • Tchkonia T, Lenburg M, Thomou T, Giorgadze N, Frampton G, Pirtskhalava T, Cartwright A, Cartwright M, Flanagan J, Karagiannides I, Gerry N, Forse RA, Tchoukalova Y, Jensen MD, Pothoulakis C, Kirkland JL (2007b) Identification of depot-specific human fat cell progenitors through distinct expression profiles and developmental gene patterns. Am. J. Physiol. 292, E298E307.
  • Tchkonia T, Giorgadze N, Pirtskhalava T, Thomou T, Villaret A, Bouloumie A, Von Zglinicki T, Kirkland JL (2009) Cellular senescence and inflammation in obesity. Obesity 17(Suppl. 2), S57.
  • Tchoukalova Y, Koutsari C, Jensen M (2007) Committed subcutaneous preadipocytes are reduced in human obesity. Diabetologia 50, 151157.
  • Thomou T, Tchkonia T, Kirkland JL (2010) The cellular and molecular basis of functional differences among fat depots. In Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease (TALeff, JGGranneman, eds). Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH, pp. 2147.
  • Tran TT, Yamamoto Y, Gesta S, Kahn CR (2008) Beneficial effects of subcutaneous fat transplantation on metabolism. Cell Metab. 7, 410420.
  • Turkenkopf IJ, Chow G, East-Palmer J, Greenwood MR, Johnson PR (1988) Regional and genotypic differences in stromal-vascular cells from obese and lean Zucker rats. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 12, 515524.
  • Um SH, Frigerio F, Watanabe M, Picard F, Joaquin M, Sticker M, Fumagalli S, Allegrini PR, Kozma SC, Auwerx J, Thomas G (2004) Absence of S6K1 protects against age- and diet-induced obesity while enhancing insulin sensitivity. Nature 431, 200205.
  • Unger RH (2002) Lipotoxic diseases. Annu. Rev. Med. 53, 319336.
  • Unger RH (2005) Longevity, lipotoxicity and leptin: the adipocyte defense against feasting and famine. Biochimie 87, 5764.
  • Uranga AP, Levine J, Jensen M (2005) Isotope tracer measures of meal fatty acid metabolism: reproducibility and effects of the menstrual cycle. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 288, E547E555.
  • Valle A, Guevara R, Garcia-Palmer FJ, Roca P, Oliver J (2008) Caloric restriction retards the age-related decline in mitochondrial function of brown adipose tissue. Rejuvenation Res. 11, 597604.
  • Vasile E, Tomita Y, Brown LF, Kocher O, Dvorak HF (2001) Differential expression of thymosin beta-10 by early passage and senescent vascular endothelium is modulated by VPF/VEGF: evidence for senescent endothelial cells in vivo at sites of atherosclerosis. FASEB J. 15, 458466.
  • Vgontzas AN, Papanicolaou DA, Bixler EO, Kales A, Tyson K, Chrousos GP (1997) Elevation of plasma cytokines in disorders of excessive daytime sleepiness: role of sleep disturbance and obesity. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82, 13131316.
  • Visser M, Bouter LM, McQuillan GM, Wener MH, Harris TB (1999) Elevated C-reactive protein levels in overweight and obese adults. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 282, 21312135.
  • Visser M, Pahor M, Tylavsky F, Kritchevsky SB, Cauley JA, Newman AB, Blunt BA, Harris TB (2003) One- and two-year change in body composition as measured by DXA in a population-based cohort of older men and women. J. Appl. Physiol. 94, 23682374.
  • Vitseva OI, Tanriverdi K, Tchkonia TT, Kirkland JL, McDonnell ME, Apovian CM, Freedman J, Gokce N (2008) Inducible Toll-like receptor and NF-kappaB regulatory pathway expression in human adipose tissue. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16, 932937.
  • Wang H, Kirkland JL, Hollenberg CH (1989) Varying capacities for replication of rat adipocyte precursor clones and adipose tissue growth. J. Clin. Invest. 83, 17411746.
  • Wang C, Jurk D, Maddick M, Nelson G, Martin-Ruiz C, Von Zglinicki T (2009a) DNA damage response and cellular senescence in tissues of aging mice. Aging Cell 8, 311323.
  • Wang CY, Kim HH, Hiroi Y, Sawada N, Salomone S, Benjamin LE, Walsh K, Moskowitz MA, Liao JK (2009b) Obesity increases vascular senescence and susceptibility to ischemic injury through chronic activation of Akt and mTOR. Sci. Signal. 2, ra11.
  • Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG, Lennon L, Whincup PH (2007) Decreased muscle mass and increased central adiposity are independently related to mortality in older men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 86, 13391346.
  • Weber RV, Buckley MC, Fried SK, Kral JG (2000) Subcutaneous lipectomy causes a metabolic syndrome in hamsters. Am. J. Physiol. 279, R936R943.
  • Weisberg SP, McCann D, Desai M, Rosenbaum M, Leibel RL, Ferrante AW (2003) Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. J. Clin. Invest. 112, 17961808.
  • Weyer C, Yudkin JS, Stehouwer CD, Schalkwijk CG, Pratley RE, Tataranni PA (2002) Humoral markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in relation to adiposity and in vivo insulin action in Pima Indians. Atherosclerosis 161, 233242.
  • Winer S, Chan Y, Paltser G, Truong D, Tsui H, Bahrami J, Dorfman R, Wang Y, Zielenski J, Mastronardi F, Maezawa Y, Drucker DJ, Engleman E, Winer D, Dosch HM (2009) Normalization of obesity-associated insulin resistance through immunotherapy. Nat. Med. 15, 921929.
  • Wu Z, Xie Y, Bucher NLR, Farmer SR (1995) Conditional ectopic expression of C/EBPb in NIH-3T3 cells induces PPARg and stimulates adipogenesis. Genes Dev. 9, 23502363.
  • Wu Z, Bucher NLR, Farmer SR (1996) Induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g during the conversion of 3T3 fibroblasts into adipocytes is mediated by C/EBPb, C/EBPd and glucocorticoids. Mol. Cell. Biol. 16, 41284136.
  • Wu Z, Rosen ED, Brun R, Hauser S, Adelmant G, Troy AE, McKeon C, Darlington GJ, Spiegelman BM (1999) Cross-regulation of C/EBPa and PPARg controls the transcriptional pathway of adipogenesis and insulin sensitivity. Mol. Cell 3, 151158.
  • Wu D, Ren Z, Pae M, Guo W, Cui X, Merrill AH, Meydani SN (2007) Aging up-regulates expression of inflammatory mediators in mouse adipose tissue. J. Immunol. 179, 48294839.
  • Xie W, Hamilton JA, Kirkland JL, Corkey BE, Guo W (2006) Oleate-induced formation of fat cells with impaired insulin sensitivity. Lipids 41, 267271.
  • Xu H, Uysal KT, Becherer JD, Arner P, Hotamisligil GS (2002) Altered tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) processing in adipocytes and increased expression of transmembrane TNF-alpha in obesity. Diabetes 51, 18761883.
  • Xu H, Barnes GT, Yang Q, Tna G, Yang D, Chou CJ, Sole J, Nichols A, Ross JS, Tartaglia LA, Chen H (2003) Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. J. Clin. Invest. 112, 18211830.
  • Xue W, Zender L, Miething C, Dickins RA, Hernando E, Krizhanovsky V, Cordon-Cardo C, Lowe SW (2007) Senescence and tumour clearance is triggered by p53 restoration in murine liver carcinomas. Nature 445, 656660.
  • Yamamoto Y, Gesta S, Lee KY, Tran TT, Saadatirad P, Kahn CR (2010) Adipose depots possess unique developmental gene signatures. Obesity (Silver Spring) 18, 872878.
  • Yeh WC, Cao M, Classon M, McKnight SL (1995) Cascade regulation of terminal adipocyte differentiation by three members of the C/EBP family of leucine zipper proteins. Genes Dev. 9, 168181.
  • Yki-Jarvinen H, Kiviluoto T, Nikkila EA (1986) Insulin binding and action in adipocytes in vitro in relation to insulin action in vivo in young and middle-aged subjects. Acta Endocrinol. 113, 8892.
  • Yu BP, Masoro EJ, Murata I, Bertrand HA, Lynd FT (1982) Lifespan study of SPF Fischer 344 male rats fed ad libitum or restricted diets: longevity, growth lean body mass and disease. J. Gerontol. 37, 130141.
  • Zhang Y, Herbert BS, Rajashekhar G, Ingram DA, Yoder MC, Clauss M, Rehman J (2009) Premature senescence of highly proliferative endothelial progenitor cells is induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. FASEB J. 23, 13581365.