Adult neurogenesis within the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle (LV) has been most intensely studied within the brains of rodents such as mice and rats. However, little is known about the cell types and processes involved in adult neurogenesis within primates such as the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Moreover, substantial differences seem to exist between the neurogenic niche of the LV between rodents and humans. Here, we set out to use immunohistochemical and autogradiographic analysis to characterize the anatomy of the neurogenic niches and the expression of cell type–specific markers in those niches in the adult common marmoset brain. Moreover, we demonstrate significant differences in the activity of neurogenesis in the adult marmoset brain compared to the adult mouse brain. Finally, we provide evidence for ongoing proliferation of neuroblasts within both the SGZ and SVZ of the adult brain and further show that the age-dependent decline of neurogenesis in the hippocampus is associated with a decrease in neuroblast cells.