• muscle enzymes;
  • insulin;
  • serum triglycerides;
  • muscle glycogen;
  • blood metabolites

Summary. Men with regular physical training habits voluntarily increased their dietary fat intake from 43 to 54% of energy (E%) for four weeks. This was followed by a low-fat (29 E%), high-carbohydrate diet for another four weeks. During the high-fat diet period, the muscle lipoprotein lipase activity (LPLA) increased from 59±8 to 106±12 mU/g (mean±SE) (P<0·05). After the high-carbohydrate diet, LPLA was 57±16 mU/g, and unchanged relative to the pre-trial value. The triglyceride content in m. vastus lateralis increased from 30±4 to 47±9 mmol/kg d.w. (P<0·05; mean±SE) following the high-fat diet and to 41±8 following the high-carbohydrate diet. Neither of the diets affected the serum triglyceride and insulin concentrations, nor glucose, glycerol, β-hydroxybutyrate, citrate and lactate levels in the blood. Nor did they alter enzyme activities in muscle used as markers for the oxidative (citrate synthase, β-hydroxy-acyl CoA dehydrogenase) and glycolytic (glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase) capacity. It is concluded that one month's adaptation to a high-fat diet results in increased muscle-LPL activity indicating a higher capacity for uptake of fatty acids from circulating serum triglycerides into the muscle cell in association with a greater capacity for triglyceride storage in the muscle. Under these conditions serum triglycerides were not decreased despite the increased muscle LPLA, and serum insulin variations could not explain the change in muscle LPLA. The effects of prolonged diets on muscle metabolism in well-trained men differ in several respects from those of short-term dietary treatments.