Comparative effects of high- and low-intensity resistance training on thigh muscle strength, fiber area, and tissue composition in elderly women
Article first published online: 28 JUN 2008
Volume 16, Issue 4, pages 381–392, July 1996
How to Cite
Taaffe, D. R., Pruitt, L., Pyka, G., Guido, D. and Marcus, R. (1996), Comparative effects of high- and low-intensity resistance training on thigh muscle strength, fiber area, and tissue composition in elderly women. Clinical Physiology, 16: 381–392. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-097X.1996.tb00727.x
- Issue published online: 28 JUN 2008
- Article first published online: 28 JUN 2008
- Received 4 September 1995; accepted 5 February 1996
- exercise prescription.
SUMMARY. The effects of 52 weeks resistance training at one of two exercise intensities on thigh muscle strength, fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), and tissue composition were studied in healthy 65–79-year-old women. Subjects were assigned to either a control (CO), high-intensity (HI) or low-intensity (LO) training group. Exercise regimens consisted of three sets of leg press, knee extension, and knee flexion exercises, 3 days/week, at either 80% of one-repetition maximum (1-RM) for seven repetitions (HI) or 40% of 1-RM for 14 repetitions (LO). Dynamic muscle strength was evaluated by 1-RM, thigh lean tissue mass (LTM), fat mass, and bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fiber CSA of vastus lateralis m. by histomor-phometry. Muscle strength increased, on average (± SEM), by 59.4 ± 7.9% and 41.5±7.9% for HI and LO, respectively, compared to l.3 ± 4.8% in CO (P = 0.0001). Type I fiber CSA increased over time (P < 0.05) in both exercise groups, with a trend for increased type II area (HI, P = 0.06; LO, P = 011). There was no significant effect of either exercise program on thigh tissue composition, except for BMD at the 1/3 site (middle third of the femur), where LO and CO groups experienced a decline (P < 0.05) of -2.2 ± 0.5% and -l.8 ± 0.6%, respectively, while HI maintained BMD (+ l.0 ± l.0%). Both training programs produced significant gains in thigh muscle strength, which were associated with fiber hypertrophy, although these did not translate into appreciable alterations in thigh tissue composition.