Abstract: The evaluation of residual stresses is an important aspect in many engineering applications, such as surfaces produced by mechanical or thermal treatment processes or even thin films deposited on substrates. Currently, there are several techniques for residual stress measurement. However, its application is limited by problems associated with the precision and simplicity of measurement, as well as their applicability to a wide variety of materials and situations. Indentation tests are widely used in determining the mechanical properties of materials, so it is very important to assess their sensitivity to the presence of residual stresses. In this context, recourse to numerical simulation of indentation testing proves to be an important tool to study the effect of residual stresses in the determination of hardness and modulus as well as the actual determination of residual stresses. This paper investigates the influence of the presence of equibiaxial residual stresses in the indentation test results. It proposes a methodology for reverse analysis to determine the sign and value of the equibiaxial residual stresses present in the surface of materials, from depth-sensing indentation results. For applying this methodology, the elastic and plastic behaviour of the material must be previously determined.