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One hundred and fifty-eight full-term Hong Kong Chinese infants were examined, at the age of approximately 10 weeks, using retinoscopy. Fifty of the subjects were re-examined at the ages of 20, 30 and 40 weeks. Cyclopentolate 1% was used to produce cycloplegia. Photographic methods were used to assess the straightness of the eyes of 122 infants. While the mean spherical equivalent of the refractive error at 10 weeks was within the limits reported in studies of Caucasian infants, a rapid decrease, not previously reported, occurred between the ages of 10 and 40 weeks. The amounts of astigmatism found were in line with results from Caucasian eyes but the direction was overwhelmingly with-the-rule. The prevalence of anisometropia decreased with age and anisometropia was not prevalent at the age of 37 weeks. Two exotropes (1.6%)and no esotropes were identified although this may have been confounded by the use of cyclopentolate.