SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Rosenlield, M., Ciuffreda, K. J., Hung, G. K. and Gilmartin, B. Tonic accommodation: a review. 1. Basic aspects. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 13, 266284 (1993).
  • 2
    Rosenfield, M., Ciuffreda, K. J. and Gilmartin, B. Factors influencing accommodative adaptation. Optom. Vision. Sci. 69, 270275 (1992).
  • 3
    Grab, B. Basic Electronics (4th edn) McGraw-Hill. New York . USA 285286 (1977).
  • 4
    Miller, R. J. Temporal stability oF the dark focus of accommodation. Am, J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55, 447450 (1978).
  • 5
    Mershon, D. H. and Amerson, T. L. Stability of measures of the dark focus of accommodation. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 217221 (1980).
  • 6
    Heron, G., Smith, A. C. and Winn, B. The influence of method on the stability of the dark focus position of accommodation. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 1, 7980 (1981).
  • 7
    Owens, R. L, and Higgins, K. E. Long-term stability of the dark focus of accommodation. Am. J. Optom Physiol. Opt. 60, 3238 (1983).
  • 8
    Krumholz, D. M., Fox, R. S. and Ciuffreda, K. J Short-term changes in tonic accommodation. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 27, 552557 (1986).
  • 9
    Amerson, T. L. and Mershon, D. H. Time-of-day variations in oculomotor function: 1. Tonic accommodation and tonic vergence. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 8, 415422 (1988).
  • 10
    Ebenholtz, S. M. Accommodative hysteresis: A precursor for induced myopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 24, 513515 (1983).
  • 11
    Ebenholtz, S. M. Accommodative hysteresis: relation to resting focus. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 755762 (1985).
  • 12
    Schor, C. M. Adaptive regulation of accommodative vergence and vergence accommodation. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 63, 587609 (1986).
  • 13
    Gilmartin, B. and Bullimore, M. A. Sustained near-vision augments inhibitory sympathetic innervation of the ciliary muscle. Clin. Vision Sci. 1, 197208 (1987).
  • 14
    Owens, D A, and Wolf-Kelly, K. Near work, visual fatigue, and variations in oculomotor tonus. Invest, Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 743749 (1987).
  • 15
    Rosenfield, M. and Gilmartin, B. Accommodative adaptation induced by sustained disparity-vergence. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 118126 (1988).
  • 16
    Fisher, S. K., Ciuffreda, K. J. and Levine, S. Tonic accommodation, accommodative hysteresis, and refractive error. Am. J, Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64, 799809 (1987).
  • 17
    Gilmartin, B and Bullimore, M. A. Adaptation of tonic accommodation to sustained visual tasks in emmetropia and late-onset myopia. Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 3326 (1991).
  • 18
    Henson, D. B and North, R. V. Adaptation to prism-induced heterophoria. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 57, 129137 (1980).
  • 19
    Owens, D. A. and Leibowitz, H. W. Perceptual and motor consequences of ionic vergence. In Vergence Eye Movements; Basic and Clinical Aspects. (Eds C. M.Schor and K. J.Ciuffreda). Butterworths. Boston , USA , 2574 (1983).
  • 20
    Schor, C. M. Fixation disparity and vergence adaption. In Vergence Eye Movements: Basic and Clinical Aspects. (Eds. C. M.Schor and K. J.Ciuffreda). Butterworths, Boston . USA. 465516 (1983).
  • 21
    North, R. V. and Henson, D. B. Adaptation to lens-induced heterophoria. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 774780 (1985).
  • 22
    Sethi, B. Vergence adaptation: a revie. Doc. Ophthalmol. 63, 247263 (1986).
  • 23
    Sethi, B. Heterophoria: a vergence adaptive position. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 6, 151156 (1986).
  • 24
    Roscoe, S. N. and Benel, R. A. Is the Eye Smart or the Brain Forgiving Tech. Rep. Eng. Psy. 78-1/AFOSR-78-I. University of Illinois. Champaign. IL, USA (1978).
  • 25
    Malmstrom, F. V. and Randle, R. J. Effects of visual imagery on the accommodation response. Percept. Psychophys. 19, 450453 (1976).
  • 26
    Randle, R. J., Roscoe, S. N. and Petitt, J. C. Effects of Magnification and Visual Accommodation on Aimpopint Estimation in Simulated Landings with Real and Virtual Image Displays. NASA report no. TP-1635. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA (1980).
  • 27
    Östberg, O. Accommodation and visual fatigue in display work. In Ergonomic Aspects of Visual Display Terminals. (Eds. E.Grandjean and E.Viglani). Taylor and Francis. London . UK. 4152 (1982).
  • 28
    Tan, R. K. T. The effect of accommodation response on the dark focus. Clin. Exp. Optom. 69, 156159 (1986).
  • 29
    Hogan, R. E. Aspects of tonic accommodation and tonic vergence. PhD Thesis. Aston University, UK (1985).
  • 30
    Hogan, R E., Gilmartin, B. The elfect of sustained visual tasks on tonic accommodation and tonic vergence. Ophthal Physiol. Opt. 5, 234235 (1985).
  • 31
    Rosenfied, M. Comparison of accommodative adaptation using laser and infrared optometers. Ophthal. Physiol Opt. 9, 431436 (1989).
  • 32
    Wolf, K. S., Ciuffreda, K. J. and Jacobs, S. E. Time course and decay of effects of near work on tonic accommodation and tonic vergence. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 7, 131135 (1987).
  • 33
    Rosenfield, M. and Gilmartin, B. Temporal aspects of accommodative adaptation. Optom. Vision Sci. 66, 229234 (1989).
  • 34
    Schor, C. M., Kotulak, J. C. and Tsuetaki, T. Adaptation of tonic accommodation reduces accommodative lag and is masked in darkness. Invest. Ophtholmol. Visualo Sci. 27, 820827 (1986).
  • 35
    Gilmantn, B., Bullimore, M. A. Rosenfield, M., Winn, B. and Owens. H Pharmacological effects on accommodative adaptation. Optom. Vision Sci. 69, 276282 (1982).
  • 36
    Post, R. B., Johnson, C. A. and Tsuetaki, T. K. Comparison of laser and infrared techniques for measurement of the resting focus of accommodation. Mean differences and long-term variability. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 4, 327332 (1984).
  • 37
    Post, R. B., Johnson, C. A. and Owens, D. A. Does performance of tasks affect the resting focus of accommodation. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 533537 (1985).
  • 38
    Heath, G. G. The Time Course of Night and Space Myopia. Tech. Doc. Report AMRL-TDR-62-80. Air Force Systems Command. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. USA (1962.
  • 39
    Miller, R. J., Pigion, R. G., Wesner, M. F, and Patterson, J. G. Accommodation fatigue and dark focus: The effects of accommodation-free visual work assessed by two psychophysical methods. Percept. Psycophys. 34, 532540 (1983).
  • 40
    Pigion, R. G. and Miller, R. J. Fatigue of accommodation: Changes in accommodation after visual work. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 853863 (1985).
  • 41
    Ebenholtz, S. M. Effects of ocular-vergence stress on adaptation of tonic accommodation. Curr. Vision Sci. 6, 463469 (1991).
  • 42
    Rosenfield, M., Gilmartin, B., Cunningham, E. and Dattani, N. The influence of alpha-adrenergic agents on tonic accommodation. Curr. Eye Res. 9, 267272 (1990).
  • 43
    Gilmartin, B., Hogan, R. F., and Thompson, S. M. The effect of timolol maleate on tonic accommodation, tonic vergence, and pupil diameter. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 763770 (1984).
  • 44
    Bullimore, M. A and Gilmartin, B. The measurement of adaptation of tonic accommodation under two open-loop conditions. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 9, 7275 (1989).
  • 44a
    McBrien, N. A. and Millodot, M. Differences in adaptation of tonic accommodation with refractive state. Invest Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 460469 (1988).
  • 45
    Ebenholtz, S. M. Accommodative hysteresis as a function of target dark focus separation. Vision Res. 32, 925929 (1992).
  • 46
    Leibowitz, H. W, and Owens, D. A. New evidence for the intermediate position of relaxed accommodation. Doc. Ophthalmal. 46, 133147 (1978).
  • 47
    Rosenfield, M., Ciuffreda, K. J., Ong, E. and Azimi, A. Proximally induced accommodation and accommodative adaptation. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 31, 11621167 (1990).
  • 48
    Rosenfield, M., D'Amico, J. L., Nowbotsing, S., Kapoor, N. and Ciuffreda, K. J. Temporal characteristics of proximally-induced accommodation. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 13, 151154 (1993).
  • 49
    Chiu, N. N. and Rosenfield, M. Tonic accommodation, tonic vergence and surround propinquity. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 14, 290292 (1994).
  • 50
    Schor, C. M. and McLin, L. N. The effect of luminance on accommodative and convergence aftereffects. Clin. Vision Sci. 3, 143154 (1988).
  • 51
    Wolfe, J. M. and O'Connell, K. M. Adaptation of the resting states of accommodation. Dark and light field measures. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 992996 (1987).
  • 52
    Rosenfield, M. and Gilmartin, B. Elfect of target proximity on the open-loop accommondative response. Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 7479 (1990).
  • 53
    Schor, C. M. The influence of rapid prism adaptation upon fixation disparity. Vision Res. 19, 757765 (1979).
  • 54
    Jones, R. Fusional vergence: Sustained and transient components. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 57, 640644 (1980).
  • 55
    Fisher, S. K., Ciuffreda, K. J. and Bird, J. E. The effect of stimulus duration on tonic accommodation and tonic vergence. Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 441449 (1990).
  • 56
    Schor, C. M. and Kotulak, J. C. Dynamic interactions between accommodation and convergence are velocity sensitive. Vision Res. 26, 927942 (1986).
  • 57
    Kran, B. S. and Ciuffreda, K. J. Non congruent stimuli and tonic adaptation. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 703709 (1988).
  • 58
    Ebenholtz, S. M. and Fisher, S. K. Distance adaptation depends upon plasticity in the oculometer control system. Percept. Psychophys. 31, 551560 (1982).
  • 59
    Fisher, S. K., Ciuffreda, K. J and Bird, J. E. The effect of monocular versus binocular fixation on accommodative hysteresi. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 8, 438442 (1988).
  • 60
    Rosenfield, M. and Gilmartin, B. Accommodative adaptalion to monocular and binocular stimuli. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 862866 (1988).
  • 61
    Ogle, K. N. and Martens, T. G. On the accommodative convergence and the proximal convergence. Arch. Ophthalmol, 57, 702715 (1957).
  • 62
    Wick, B. Clinical factors in proximal vergence. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 118 (1985).
  • 63
    Hung, G K., Semmlow, J. L. and Ciuffreda, K. J. The near response: modelling, instrumentation and clinical applications. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-31, 910919 (1984).
  • 64
    Hung, G. K. Adaptation model of accommodation and vergenc. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 12, 319326 (1992).
  • 65
    Hung, G. K. and Semmlow, J. L. Static behaviour of accommodation and vergenee. Computer simulation of an interactive dualfeedback system. IEEE Trars. Biomed. Eng. BME-27. 439447 (1980).
  • 66
    Campbell, P. W. The depth of field of the human eye. Optica Acta 4, 157164 (1957).
  • 67
    Charman, W. N. and Whitefoot, H. Pupil diameter and the depth-of-field of the human eye as measured by laser speckle. Optica Acta 24, 12111216 (1977).
  • 68
    Ong, E., Ciuffreda, K. J. and Tannen, B. Static accommodation in congenital nystagmus. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 1947204 (1993).
  • 69
    Fisher, S. K. and Ciuffreda, K. J. Accommodation and apparent distance. Perception 17, 609621 (1988).
  • 70
    Ciuffreda, K. J., Levi, D. M. and Selenow, A. Amblyopia: Basic and Clinical Aspects. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston , USA 288289(1991).
  • 71
    Fisher, S. K. and Ciuffreda, K. J. The effect of accommodative hysteresis on apparent distance. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 9, 184190 (1989).
  • 72
    Lie, I. Convergence as a cue to perceived size and distance. Scand. J. Psychol. 6, 109116 (1965).
  • 73
    Heath, G. G. The influence of visual acuity on accommodative responses of the eye. Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 33, 513524 (1956).
  • 74
    Levene, J. R. Clinical Refraction and Visual Science. Butterwonhs. London . UK , 190199 (1977).
  • 75
    Richards, O. W. Night myopia at night automobile driving luminances. Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 44, 517523 (1967).
  • 76
    Richards, O. W. Night myopia at night automobile driving luminances: Final report. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55, 469470 (1978).
  • 77
    Leibowitz, H. W. and Owens, D. A. Anomalous myopias and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation. Science 189, 646648 (1975).
  • 78
    Owens, D. A. and Leibowitz, H. W. Night myopia: Cause and a possible basis for amelioration. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 53, 709716 (1976).
  • 79
    Leibowitz, H. W. and Owens, D. A. The intermediate dark-focus of accommodation and some implications. Southern J. Optom. 23, 812 (1981).
  • 80
    Leibowitz, H. W. and Owens, D A. Can normal outdoor activities be carried out during civil twiligh. Appl. Opt. 30, 35013503 (1991).
  • 81
    Sheard, D. A. The significance of night myopia for motor vehicle drivers. Ophthalmic Optician 16, 151154 (1976).
  • 82
    Hope, G. M. and Rubin, M. L Night myopia. Surv, Ophthalmol. 29, 129136 (1984).
  • 83
    Taylor, S. Night myopia and driving. Optician. 200 (3 August) 1214 (1990.
  • 84
    Charman, W. N. Night myopia and the dark focus of the eye. Optician. 202 (29 November) 1318 (1991).
  • 85
    Post, R. B., Owens, R. L., Owens, D. A. and Leibowitz, H. W. Correction of empty-field myopia on the basis of the dark-focus of accommodation. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 8992 (1979).
  • 86
    Epstein, D., Inglestam, E., Jannson, K. and Tengroth, B. Low luminance myopia as measured with a laser optometer. Acta Ophthalmol. 59, 928943 (1981).
  • 87
    Fry, G. A. Skiametric measurement of convergent accommodation. Optom. Wkly. 31, 353356 (1940).
  • 88
    Fincham, E. F. and Walton, J. The reciprocal actions of accommodation and convergence. J. Physiol. (Lond) 137, 488508 (1957).
  • 89
    Kent, P. R. Convergence accommodation. Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 35, 393406 (1958).
  • 90
    Morgan, M. W. Accommodation and vergence. Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 45, 417454 (1968).
  • 91
    Rosenfield, M. and Gilmartin, B. Assessment of the CA/C ratio in a myopic population. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 168173 (1988).
  • 92
    Schor, C. M., Johnson, C. A. and Post, R. B. Adaptation of ionic accommodation. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 4, 133137 (1984).
  • 93
    McBrien, N. A. and Millodot, M. The relationship between tonic accommodation and refractive error. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 9971004 (1987).
  • 94
    Simonelli, N. M. The dark focus of the human eye and its relationship to age and visual defect. Human factors 25, 8592 (1983).
  • 95
    Hedman, L. R. and Briem, V. Short-term changes in eyestrain of VDU users as a function of age. Human Factors 26, 357370 (1984).
  • 96
    Suzumura, A. Accommodation in myopia. J. Aichi. Med. Univ. Ass. 7, 615 (1979).
  • 97
    Ramsdale, C. and Charman, W. N. A longitudinal study of the changes in the static accommodation response. Ophthal. Physiol. Opi. 9, 255263 (1989).
  • 98
    Mordi, J and Ciuffreda, K. J. Accommodation and aging. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sri. 32 (Suppl.), 760 (1991).
  • 99
    Richards, O. W. Instrument myopia - Microscop. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 53, 658663 (1976).
  • 100
    Wesner, M. F. and Miller, R. J. Instrument myopia conceptions, misconceptions, and influencing factors. Doc. Ophthalmol. 62, 281308 (1986).
  • 101
    Hennessy, R. T. Instrument myopia. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 11141120 (1975).
  • 102
    Smith, G. The accommodative resting states, instrument accommodation and their measurement. Optica Acta 30, 347359 (1983).
  • 103
    Miller, R. J, Wesner, M. F., Pigion, R. G. and Martin, K. D. Overaccommodation, underaccommodation, and the clinical phoropter: a study of instrument myopia and related effects. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 61, 293303 (1984).
  • 104
    Ripps, H., Chin, N. B., Siegel, I. M. and Bremin, G. M. The effect of pupil size on accommodation, convergence and the AC/A ratio Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 127135 (1962).
  • 105
    Ward, P. A and Charman, W. N. On the use of small artificial pupils to open-loop the accommodation system. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 7, 191193 (1987).
  • 106
    Molish, H. and Reese, E. A comparison of the Belts tests of visual sensation and perception with a standard clinical examination. Am. J. Optom. 16, 110117 (1939).
  • 107
    Schober, H. A. W., Denier, H. and Kassel, R. Accommodation during observations with optical instrument. J Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 103107 (1970).
  • 108
    Ditchbum, R. W. Focusing of instruments. Optica Acta 27, 713715 (1980).
  • 109
    Rosenfield, M., Ciuffreda, K. J. and Hung, G.K. The linearity of proximally-induced accommodation and vergence. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32, 29852991 (1991).
  • 110
    Ittleson, W. H. and Ames, A. Accommodation, convergence, and their relation to apparent distance. J. Psychol. 30, 4362 (1950).
  • 111
    Alpern, M. Vergenee and accommodation. I Can change in size induce vergenee movements. Arch. Ophthalmol. 60, 355357 (1958).
  • 112
    Rosenfield, M. and Ciuffreda, K. J. Effect of surround propinquity on the open-loop accommodative response. invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32, 142147 (1991).
  • 113
    Goldschmidt, E. On the etiology of myopia. An epidemiological study. Acta Ophthalmol. 98 (Suppl.). 1172 (1968).
  • 114
    Duke-Elder, S. and Abrams, D. System of Ophthalmology Vol. V; Ophthalmic Optics and Refraction. Henry Kimpton, London , UK (1970).
  • 115
    Ramazzini, B. Diseases of Workers (1713) Trans by Wilmer Cave Wright. Chicago . University of Chicago Press (1940). (Cited by Owens120].
  • 116
    Borish, I. M. Clinical Refraction, 3rd edn. Professional Press, Chicago , USA. 83114. (1970).
  • 117
    McBrien., N A., and Barnes, D. A. A review and evaluation of theories of refractive error developmen. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 4, 201213 (1984).
  • 118
    Curtin, B. J. The Myopias. Basic Science and Clinical Management. Harper and Row. Philadelphia . USA. 4652 (1985).
  • 119
    Rosenfleld, M. Accommodation and myopia: Are they really related. J. Behav. Optom. 5, 311 (1994).
  • 120
    Owens, D. A. Near work, accommodative tonus, and myopia. In Refractive Anomalies. Research and Clinical Applications. (Eds TGrosvener and M. CFlom) Butlerworth-Heinemann, Boston , USA , 318344 (1991).
  • 121
    Van Alphen, G. W. H. M. On emmetropia and ametropia. Ophthalmologica 142 (Suppl.). 192 (1961).
  • 122
    Gawron, V. J. Differences among myopes, emmetropes. and hyperopes. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 58, 753760 (1981).
  • 123
    Ramsdale, C. The effect of ametropia on the accommodative response. Acta Ophthalmol. 63, 167174 (1985).
  • 124
    Maddock, R. J., Millodot, M., Leal, S. and Johnson, C. A. Accommodation responses and refractive error. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 20, 387391 (1981).
  • 125
    Carreras, M. La miopia nocturna e influencia sobre la misma de la amplitud de acomodacion. Archos. Soc. Oftal. Hisp.-Am. 11, 14431489 (1951).
  • 126
    Whiiefoot, H and Charman, W. N. Dynamic retinoscopy and accommodation. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 12, 817 (1992).
  • 127
    Bullimore, M. A., Boyd, T., Mather, H. E. and Gilmartin, B. Near retinoscopy and refractive error. Clin. Exp. Optom. 71, 114118 (1988).
  • 128
    Bullimore, M. A., Gilmartin, B. and Royston, J. M. Steady-state accommodation and ocular biometry in late-onset myopia, Doc. Ophthalmol. 80, 143155 (1992).
  • 129
    Morse, S. E. and Smith, E. L. Long-term adaptational aftereffects of accommodation are associated with distal dark focus and not with late onset myopia. Invest. Ophthamol. Visual Sci. 34 (Suppl). 1308 (1993).
  • 130
    Brown, E. V. L. Net average yearly change in refraction of atropinized eyes from birth to beyond middle life. Acta Ophthalmol. 19, 719734 (1938).
  • 131
    Brown, E. V. L. Use-abuse theory of changes in refraction versus biologic theory. Arch. Ophthalmol. 28, 845850 (1942).
  • 132
    Slataper, F. J. Age norms of refraction and vision. Arch. Ophthalmol. 43, 466481 (1950).
  • 133
    Goss, D. A., Winkler, R. L. Progression of myopia in youth: age of cessation. Am. J. Opium. Physiol. Opt. 60, 651658 (1983).
  • 134
    Rosenfield, M. and Gilrmartin, B. Effect of a near-vision task on the response AC/A of a myopic population. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 7, 225233 (1987).
  • 135
    Bullimore, M. A, and Gilmartin, B. Aspects of tonic accommodation in emmetropia and late-onset myopia. Am. J. Optom. Phvsiol. Opt. 64, 499503 (1987).
  • 136
    Fisher, S. K., Ciuffreda, K. J., Levine, S. and Wolf-Kelly, K. S. Tonic adaptation in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64, 333343 (1987).
  • 137
    Birnbaum, M. H. Nearpoint visual stress: clinical implications. J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 56, 480490 (1985).
  • 138
    Lograno, M. D. and Reibaldi, A. Receptor-responses in fresh human ciliary muscle. Br J. Pharmacol. 87, 379385 (1986).
  • 139
    Wax, M. B. and Molinoff, P. B. Distribution and properties of β-adrenergic receptors in human irisciliary body. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 420430 (1987).
  • 140
    Zetterstrom, C. and Hahnenberger, R. Pharmacological characierization of human ciliary muscle adrenoceptors in vitro. Exp. Eye Res. 46, 421430 (1988).
  • 141
    Gilmartin, B., Winn, B., Pugh, J. R. and Owens, H. Aspects of ciliary muscle innervation in late-onset myopia. Fourth International Conference on Myopia (Transactions of the XXVI International Congress of Ophthalmology). Singapore. 119128 (1990).
  • 142
    McBrien, N. A. and Millodot, M. A biometric investigation of late onset myopic eyes. Acta Ophthalmol. 65, 461468 (1987).
  • 143
    Grosvenor, T. and Scott, R. Comparison of refractive components in youth-onset and early adult-onset myopia. Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 204209 (1991).
  • 144
    Grosvenor, T. and Scott, R. Three-year changes in refraction and its components in youth-onset and early adult-onset myopia. Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 677683 (1993).
  • 145
    Van Alphen, G. W. H. M. Emmetropization in the primate eye. In Myopia and the Control of Eye Growth. Ciba Foundation Symposium. Wiley. Chichester , UK , 115120 (1990).
  • 146
    Van Alphen, G. W. H. M. Choroidal stress and emmetropization. Vision Res. 26, 723734 (1986).
  • 147
    Van Alphen, G. W. H. M. and Graebel, W. The Elasticity of tissues involved in accommodation. Vision Res. 31, 14171438 (1991).
  • 148
    Graebel, W. P. and Van Alphen, G. W. H. M. The elasticity of sclera and choroid of the human eye, and its implications on scleral rigidity and accommodatio. J. Biomech. Eng. 99, 203208 (1977).
  • 149
    McBrien, N A. and Millodot, M. Amplitude of accommodation and refractive error. invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 27, 11871190 (1986).
  • 150
    McBrien, N. A. and Milliodot, M. The effect of refractive error on the accommodative response gradient. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 6, 145149 (1986).
  • 151
    Ciuffreda, K J. and Kenyon, R. V. Accommodative vergence and accommodation in normals, amblyopes and stabismics. In Vergence Eye Movements: Basil and Clinical Aspects. (eds. C. M.Schor and Ciuffreda, K, J.) Buiterworths, Boston , USA. 101173 (1983).
  • 152
    Morgan, M W. Accommodation and its relationship to convergence. Am. J Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 21, 83195 (1944).
  • 153
    Heath, G. G. Components of accommodation. Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 33, 569579 (1956).
  • 154
    Ehrlich, D. L. Dark focus and its dependency on the far point criteria Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 30 (Suppl.). 135 (1989).
  • 155
    Rosenfield, M., Ciuffreda, K J. and Novogrodsky, L. Contribution of accommodation and disparity - vergence to transient nearworkinduced myopic shifts. Ophthal Physiol. Opt. 12, 433436 (1992).
  • 156
    Rosenfield, M. Gillard, M. A. and Ciuffreda, K. J. Bifocal lenses may prevent transient task-induced far point shifts. Optom. Vis. Sci. 69 (Suppl.). 19 (1992).
  • 157
    Ong, E., Ciuffreda, K. J. and Rosenfield, M. Effect of target proximity on transient myopia induced by equidioptric stimuli, (submitted for publication).
  • 158
    Blustein, G H., Rosenfield, M. and Ciuffreda, K. J. Does dark accommodation really change following sustained near fixation Optom. Vision Sci. 70 (Suppl.). 16 (1993).
  • 159
    Schor, C. M and Homer, D. Adaptive disorders of accommodation and vergence in binocular dysfunction. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 9, 264268 (1989).