SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adams, G. G. W. and Karas, M. P. (1999). Effect of amblyopia on employment prospects. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 378.
  • Atkinson, J., Braddick, O. and French, J. (1980). Infant astigmatism: its disappearance with age. Vis. Res. 20, 891893.
  • Banks, M. S. (1980). Infant refraction and accommodation. Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 20, 205232.
  • Barnes, M., Williams, C., Lumb, R., Harrad, R. A., Sparrow, J. M., Harvey, I. and ALSPAC study team (2001). The prevalence of refractive errors in a UK birth cohort of children aged 7 years. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. ARVO E-abstract 2096.
  • Birch, J. and Platts, C. E. (1993). Colour vision screening in children: an evaluation of three pseudoisochromatic tests. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 14, 344349.
  • Ciner, E. B., Schmidt, P. P., Orel-Bixler, D., Dobson, V., Maguire, M., Cyert, L., Moore, B. and Schultz, J. (1998). Vision screening of preschool children: evaluating the past, looking toward the future. Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 571584.
  • Clarke, M. P., Wright, C. M., Hrisos, S., Anderson, J. D. and Richardson, S. R. (2003). Randomised controlled trial of treatment of unilateral visual impairment detected at preschool vision screening. Br. Med. J. 327, 12511254.
  • Cleary, M. (2000). Efficacy of occlusion for strabismic amblyopia: can an optimal duration be identified? Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84, 572578.
  • Cook, R. C. and Glassock, R. E. (1951). Refractive and ocular findings in the newborn. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 14071413.
  • Cordain, L., Eaton, S. B., Miller, J. B., Lindeberg, S. and Jensen, C. (2002). An evolutionary analysis of the aetiology and pathogenesis of juvenile-onset myopia. Acta Ophthalmol. Scan. 80, 125135.
  • Daw, N. W. (1998). Critical periods and amblyopia. Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 502505.
  • Dobson, V., Fulton, A. B., Manning, K., Salem, D. and Peterson, R. A. (1981). Cycloplegic refractions of premature infants. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 490495.
  • Donahue, S. P., Arnold, R. W., Ruben, J. B. and AAPOS Vision Screening Committee (2003). Preschool vision screening: what should we be detecting and how should we report it? Uniform guidelines for reporting results of preschool vision screening studies. J. AAPOS 7, 314316.
  • Dorey, S. E., Adams, G. G. W., Lee, J. P. and Sloper, J. J. (2001). Intensive occlusion therapy for amblyopia. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 310313.
  • Dutton, G. N. and Cleary, M. (2003). Should we be screening for and treating amblyopia? Br. Med. J. 327, 12421243.
  • Edwards, M. H. (1991). The refractive status of Hong Kong Chinese infants. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 11, 297303.
  • Eibschitz-Tsimhoni, M., Friedman, T., Naor, J., Eibschitz, N. and Friedman, Z. (2000). Early screening for amblyogenic risk factors lowers the prevalence and severity of myopia. J. AAPOS 4, 194199.
  • Fan, D. S. P., Lam, D. S. C., Lam, R. F., Lau, J. T. F., Chong, K. S., Cheung, E. Y. Y., Lai, R. Y. K. and Chew, S.-J. (2004). Prevalence, incidence and progression of myopia of school children in Hong Kong. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 10711075.
  • Flom, M. C. and Bedell, H. E. (1985). Identifying amblyopia using associated conditions, acuity and nonacuity features. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 153160.
  • Frandsen, A. D. (1960). Occurrence of squint. Acta Ophthalmol. 63(Suppl.), 1122.
  • Fulton, A. B., Dobson, V., Salem, D., Mar, C., Petersen, R. A. and Hansen, R. M. (1980). Cycloplegic refractions in infants and young children. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 239247.
  • Gallo, P. G., Panzo, M., Lantieri, P. B., Risso, D., Conforti, G., Lagonia, P., Piro, A., Tagarelli, G. and Tagarelli, A. (2003). Some psychological aspects of colour blindness at school: a field study in Calabria and Basilicata (southern Italy). Colour Res. Appl. 28, 216220.
  • Garner, L. F., Kinnear, R. F., Klinger, J. D. and McKellar, M. J. (1985). Prevalence of myopia in school children in Vanuatu. Acta Ophthalmol. 63, 323326.
  • Garner, L. F., Yap, M. K. H., Kinnear, R. F. and Firth, M. J. (1995). Ocular dimensions and refraction in Tibetan children. Optom. Vis. Sci. 72, 266271.
  • Gilbert, C. and Awan, H. (2003). Blindness in children - Half of it is avoidable and suitable cost effective interventions are available. Br. Med. J. 327, 760761.
  • Gilmartin, B. (2002). European Consortium for Research Excellence in Myopia (ECREM). Available at: http://eoi.cordis.lu/dsp_details.cfm?ID=29235[accessed on 6 September 2004.
  • Gordon, N. (1998). Colour blindness. Public Health 112, 8184.
  • Goss, D. A. and Winkler, R. L. (1983). Progression of myopia in youth: age of cessation. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 60, 651658.
  • Gwiazda, J., Scheiman, M., Mohindra, I. and Held, R. (1984). Astigmatism in children: changes in axis and amount from birth to six years. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 8892.
  • Hall, D. M. B. and Elliman, D. (Eds). (2003). Health for All Children. Open University Press, Buckingham, UK.
  • Harrad, R. (2000). The efficacy of occlusion for strabismic amblyopia. Can an optimal duration be identified. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84, 561.
  • Harvey, W. and Gilmartin, B. (Eds). (2004). Paediatric Optometry. Butterworth-Heinemann, London, UK.
  • Hirsch, M. J. and Weymouth, F. W. (1991). Changes in optical elements: hypothesis for the genesis of refractive anomalies. In: Refractive Anomalies – Research and Clinical Implications (eds T.Grosvenor and M. C.Flom), Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, MA, USA, pp. 3956.
  • Ingram, R. M. and Walker, C. (1979). Refraction as a means of predicting a squint or amblyopia in preschool siblings of children known to have these defects. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 63, 238242.
  • Jensen, H. and Goldschmidt, E. (1986). Visual acuity in Danish schoolchildren. Acta Ophthalmol. 64, 187191.
  • Johnson, G. J. (1988). Myopia in arctic regions. Acta Ophthalmol. 66, 1318.
  • Junghans, B., Crewther, S. G., Kiely, P. and Crewther, D. P. (2002a). The Prevalence of Hypermetropia and Myopia Amongst a Large Multicultural Population of School Children in Sydney. The 9th International Conference on Myopia, Hong Kong and Guangzhou.
  • Junghans, B., Keily, P. M., Crewther, D. P. and Crewther, S. G. (2002b). Referral rates for a functional vision screening among a large cosmopolitan sample of Australian children. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 22, 1025.
  • Juttmann, R. (2001). The Rotterdam Amblyopia Screening Effectiveness Study (RAMSES): compliance and predictive value in the first 2 years. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 13321335.
  • Kendall, J., Stayte, M. A. and Wortham, C. (1989). Ocular defects in children from birth to 6 years of age. Br. Orthopt. J. 46, 36.
  • Kleinstein, R. N., Jones, L. A., Hullet, S., Kwon, S., Lee, R. J., Friedman, N. E., Manny, R. E., Mutti, D. O., Yu, J. A. and Zadnik, K. (2003). Refractive error and ethnicity on children. Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 11411147.
  • Kvarnström, G., Jakobsson, P. and Lennerstrand, G. (2001). Visual screening of Swedish children: an ophthalmological evaluation. Acta Ophthalmol. Scan. 79, 240244.
  • Lam, C. S. Y. and Goh, W. S. H. (1991). The incidence of refractive errors among school children in Hong Kong and its relationship with the optical components. Clin. Exp. Optom. 74, 97103.
  • Lam, S. R., LaRoche, G. R., De Becker, I. and Macpherson, H. (1996). The range and variability of ophthalmological parameters in normal children aged 4inline image–5inline image years. J. Pediatr. Ophthalmol. Strabismus 33, 251256.
  • Lam, C. S. Y., Goldschmidt, E. and Edwards, M. H. (2002). Prevalence of myopia in local and international schools in Hong Kong. The 9th International Conference on Myopia, Hong Kong and Guangzhou.
  • Lennerstrand, G., Jakobsson, P. and Kvarnström, G. (1995). Screening for ocular dysfunction in children – approaching a common program. Acta Ophthalmol. Scan. 73 (Suppl. 214), 2638.
  • Lin, L. L.-K., Shih, Y.-F., Tsai, C.-B., Chen, C.-J., Lee, L.-A., Hung, P.-T. and Hou, P.-K. (1996). Epidemiological study of ocular refractions among school-children. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, S1002.
  • Logan, N. S., Gilmartin, B. and Stevenson, M. R. (2004a). Myopia progression in UK children aged 5–15 years. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, Arvo E-Abstract 2741.
  • Logan, N. S., Gilmartin, B., Marr, J. E., Stevenson, M. R. and Ainsworth, J. R. (2004b ). Community-based study of the association of high myopia in children with ocular and systemic disease. Optom. Vis. Sci. 81, 1113.
  • Logan, N. S., Gilmartin, B., Wildsoet, C. F. and Dunne, M. C. M. (2004c ). Posterior retinal contour in adult human anisomyopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 21522162.
  • Marr, J. E., Halliwell-Ewen, J., Fisher, B., Soler, L. and Ainsworth, J. R. (2001). Associations of high myopia in childhood. Eye 15, 7074.
  • Matsumura, H. and Hirai, H. (1999). Prevalence of myopia and refractive changes in students from 3 to 17 years of age. Surv. Ophthalmol. 44, S109115.
  • Mayer, D. L., Hansen, R. M., Moore, B. D., Kim, S. and Fulton, A. B. (2001). Cycloplegic refractions in healthy children aged 1 through 48 months. Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 16251628.
  • Morgan, K. S. and Kennemer, J. C. (1997). Off-axis photorefractive screening in children. J. Cataract Ref. Surg. 23, 423428.
  • Moseley, M. J., Fielder, A. R., Irwin, M., Jones, H. S. and Auld, R. J. (1998). Effectiveness of occlusion therapy in ametropic amblyopia. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82, 850.
  • Motsch, S. and Muhlendyck, H. (2001). Differentiation between dyslexia and reading disorder due to ocular causes. Ophthalmologe 98, 660664.
  • Mulvihill, A., Bowell, R., Lanigan, B. and OKeefe, M. (1997). Uniocular childhood blindness: a prospective study. J. Pediatr. Ophthalmol. Strabismus 34, 111114.
  • Murthy, G. V. S., Gupta, S. K., Ellwein, L. B., et al. (2002). Refractive error in children in an urban population in New Delhi. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 623631.
  • Newman, D. K., Hitchcock, A., McCarthy, H., KeastButler, J. and Moore, A. T. (1996). Preschool vision screening: outcome of children referred to the hospital eye service. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80, 10771082.
  • von Noorden, G. K. (1967). Classification of amblyopia. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 63, 238244.
  • Ohlsson, J., Villarreal, G., Sjostrom, A., Abrahamsson, M. and Sjostrand, J. (2001). Visual acuity, residual amlyopia and ocular pathology in a screened population of 12–13-year-old children in Sweden. Acta Ophthalmol. Scan. 79, 589595.
  • Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group (2002). A randomised trial of atropine vs. patching for treatment of moderate amblyopia in children. Arch. Ophthalmol. 120, 268278.
  • Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group (2003a). The course of moderate amblyopia treated with patching in children: experience of the amblyopia treatment study. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136, 620629.
  • Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group (2003b). The course of moderate amblyopia treated with atropine in children: experience of the amblyopia treatment study. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136, 630639.
  • Quek, T. P. L., Chua, C. G., Chong, C. S., Chong, J. H., Hey, H. W., Lee, J., Lim, Y. F. and Saw, S. M. (2004). Prevalence of refractive errors in teenage high school students in Singapore. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 24, 4755.
  • Rahi, J. S. and Dezateux, C. (1997). The future of preschool vision screening services in Britain. Br. Med. J. 315, 12471248.
  • Rahi, J. S., Logan, S., Timms, C., Russell-Eggitt, I. and Taylor, D. (2002). Risk, causes and outcomes of visual impairment after loss of vision in the non-amblyopic eye: a population-based study. Lancet 360, 597602.
  • van Rens, G. H. M. B. and Arkell, S. M. (1991). Refractive errors and axial length among Alaskan Eskimos. Acta Ophthalmol. 69, 2732.
  • Robinson, B. E. (1999). Factors associated with the prevalence of myopia in 6-year-olds. Optom. Vis. Sci. 76, 266271.
  • Rose, K., Younan, C., Morgan, I. and Mitchell, P. (2003). Prevalence of undetected ocular conditions in a pilot sample of school children. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 31, 237240.
  • Saunders, K. J., McCulloch, D. L., Shepherd, A. J. and Wilkinson, A. G. (2002). Emmetropisation following preterm birth. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 10351040.
  • Saw, S.-M., Carkeet, A., Chia, K.-S., Stone, R. A. and Tan, D. T. H. (2002a). Component dependent risk factors for ocular parameters in Singapore Chinese children. Ophthalmology 109, 20652071.
  • Siatkowski, R., Cotter, S., Miller, J., Scher, C., Crockett, R. S. and Novack, G. D. (2003). Pirenzepine 2% ophthalmic gel retards myopic progression in 8–12 year old children. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. ARVO E-Abstract 4778.
  • Simons, H. D. (1986). Stereoacuity norms in young children. Arch. Ophthalmol. 28, 8492.
  • Simons, H. D. and Glasser, P. A. (1988). Vision anomalies and reading skills: a review of the literature. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 893904.
  • Simons, K. and Preslan, M. (1999). Natural history of amblyopia untreated owing to lack of compliance. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 582587.
  • Smith, E. L. and Hung, L. F. (1999). The role of optical defocus in regulating refractive development in infant monkeys. Vis. Res. 39, 14151435.
  • Snowdon, S. and Stewart-Brown, S. (1997). Preschool vision screening. Health Technol. Assess. 1.
  • Sorsby, A., Benjamin, B. and Sheridan, M. (1961). Refraction and Its Components During the Growth of the Eye from the Age of Three. Medical Research Council Special Series Report 301.
  • Sperduto, R. D., Seigel, D., Roberts, J. and Rowland, M. (1983). Prevalence of myopia in the United States. Arch. Ophthalmol. 101, 405407.
  • Stayte, M., Reeves, B. and Wortham, C. (1993). Ocular and vision defects in preschool children. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 77, 228232.
  • Tan, D. T., Lam, D., Chua, W. H., Crockett, R. S. and Asian Pirenzepine Study Group (2003). Pirenzepine Ophthalmic Gel (PIR): safety and efficacy for pediatric myopia in a one-year study in Asia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. ARVO E-Abstract 801.
  • Thomson, W. D. and Evans, B. (1999). A new approach to vision screening in schools. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 19, 196209.
  • Villarreal, M. G., Ohlsson, J., Abrahamsson, M., Sjostrom, A. and Sjostrand, J. (2000). Myopisation: the refractive tendency in teenagers. Prevalence of myopia among young teenagers in Sweden. Acta Ophthalmol. Scan. 78, 177181.
  • WHO (2000) World Health Organization Elimination of Avoidable Visual Disability Due to Refractive Errors, (WHO/PBL/00.79), Vision 2020. WHO, Geneva. Available at: http://www.v2020.org/html/sight.html.
  • Williams, C., Northstone, K., Harrad, R. A., Sparrow, J. M. and Harvey, I. (2003). Amblyopia treatment outcomes after preschool screening vs. school entry screening: observational data from a prospective cohort study. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87, 988993.
  • Zadnik, K., Mutti, D. O., Friedman, N. E. and Adams, A. J. (1993). Initial cross-sectional results from the Orinda longitudinal study of myopia. Optom. Vis. Sci. 70, 750758.
  • Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Mitchell, G. L. and Mutti, D. O. (2002). Baseline ocular component data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. The 9th International Conference on Myopia, Hong Kong and Guangzhou.