The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of refractive errors in Jordanian adults of working age, and to study the ocular biometric correlates of refractive error in this population. Refractive error and ocular biometry were measured in 1093 Jordanian adult subjects aged 17–40 years to determine the prevalence of refractive error, and explore structural correlations of ametropia. Refractive error was measured using a Grand-Seiko GR-3100K closed-view infrared autorefractor. Ocular component measurements were made using A-scan ultrasonography and autokeratometry. The prevalence of myopia [spherical equivalent refraction (SER) less than −0.50 DS] and hyperopia (SER greater than +0.50 DS) was 53.71 and 5.67% respectively; 40.62% of the sample was emmetropic (refraction between +0.50 D and −0.50 D inclusive in both principal meridians). The distribution of SER was found to show marked leptokurtosis, exhibiting a peak between plano and 1 D of myopia. Corneal radius, anterior chamber depth, crystalline lens thickness, vitreous chamber depth and axial length (AL) parameters were normally distributed in the population studied. AL to corneal curvature ratio was not normally distributed, and showed marked leptokurtosis. Linear regression analysis showed that AL correlated most closely with spherical equivalent refractive error. This study has established a database of refractive error prevalence and ocular biometric correlates of ametropia in a Middle Eastern population of working age.