• eye movements;
  • oblique viewing;
  • ocular aberrations;
  • physiological optics


The dependence of the ocular aberrations on gaze has been studied in three eyes using a fast-acquisition, Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor. Although there were some trends in the change of some aberration terms with gaze, the changes of most Zernike coefficients were smaller than their variability at each individual gaze position, due to the combined effects of microfluctuations of accommodation, eye movements, tear film dynamics, and measurement noise. For our particular experimental dataset, the confidence level at which the null hypothesis (i.e. that the aberrations do not change significantly with gaze) can be rejected is very low. Further advances in the study of the dependence of eye aberrations with gaze will require a tighter control of the sources of aberration variability at each individual gaze position.