An exploration of the initial effects of stereoscopic displays on optometric parameters

Authors

  • Marten F Fortuin,

    1. Department of Optometry, Utrecht University of Applied Science (Hogeschool Utrecht), Utrecht, the Netherlands
    2. Human-Technology Interaction Group, School of Innovation Sciences, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands
    3. Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Vision Sciences, Department of Optometry and Visual Science, City University, London, UK
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  • Marc T Lambooij,

    1. Human-Technology Interaction Group, School of Innovation Sciences, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands
    2. Philips Research Laboratories, Department of Visual Experiences, Eindhoven, the Netherlands
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  • Wijnand A IJsselsteijn,

    1. Human-Technology Interaction Group, School of Innovation Sciences, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands
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  • Ingrid Heynderickx,

    1. Philips Research Laboratories, Department of Visual Experiences, Eindhoven, the Netherlands
    2. Delft Technical University, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Mathematics and Informatics, Delft, the Netherlands
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  • David F Edgar,

    1. Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Vision Sciences, Department of Optometry and Visual Science, City University, London, UK
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  • Bruce JW Evans

    1. Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Vision Sciences, Department of Optometry and Visual Science, City University, London, UK
    2. Institute of Optometry, London, UK
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Marten Fortuin
E-mail address: martin.fortuin@hu.nl

Abstract

Citation information: Fortuin MF, Lambooij MT, IJsselsteijn WA, Heynderickx I, Edgar DF & Evans BJW. An exploration of the initial effects of stereoscopic displays on optometric parameters. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2011, 31, 33–44.

Abstract

Purpose:  To compare the effect on optometric variables of reading text presented in 2-D and 3-D on two types of stereoscopic display.

Methods:  This study measured changes in binocular visual acuity, fixation disparity, aligning prism, heterophoria, horizontal fusional reserves, prism facility and accommodation responses for near of subjects after completing ten consecutive reading tasks of 1 minute each. The tasks consisted of reading words on a polarized two-view (n = 39) and an auto-stereoscopic lenticular nine-view display (n = 19) with the text presented without or with stereoscopic disparity at 3 m. Performance was assessed by measuring reading speed and symptoms were rated by the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) questionnaire.

Results:  With both types of display, CISS scores at least doubled immediately after subjects viewed the 3-D text image in an extreme stereoscopic condition compared to the 2-D condition (p < 0.001), while the mean reading speed slowed (p < 0.001). Mean changes in optometric test variables were not clinically or statistically significant (p values > 0.05). After the 3-D task one participant showed consistent clinically meaningful decreases in convergent fusional break and recovery points for both displays.

Conclusion:  When healthy adult subjects with normal binocular vision viewed text images at 3 m in extreme 3-D display settings for a short period of time there were no clinically significant mean changes in optometric test variables compared with 2-D viewing.

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