• Adolescence;
  • treatment resistance;
  • therapeutic outcomes;
  • substance abuse and dependence;
  • behavioral dyscontrol


Outdoor behavioral healthcare (OBH) treatment offers an alternative to parents of youth who are treatment-resistant or avoidant.


The current study evaluated OBH therapeutic outcomes. The sample was 190 adolescents (Mage 15.69) presenting for treatment between 2006 and 2008. To be eligible, participants had to be between the ages of 13 and 17 years and be admitted to one of the three OBH programs for mental health intervention. Primary study hypotheses were that OBH treatment would be associated with a reduction in psychiatric symptomatology from baseline to post-treatment and second, that the OBH intervention would be associated with the maintenance of the hypothesized treatment gains.

Results and Conclusions

Findings were consistent with hypotheses, suggesting that youth demonstrated significant symptomatic reductions and maintained these improvements over a 12-month follow-up period.