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Keywords:

  • GLASS;
  • GLASS-MAKING;
  • EGYPT;
  • LATE BRONZE AGE;
  • AMARNA;
  • ELECTRON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS

This paper presents direct archaeological evidence for the primary production of glass at the LBA site of Tell el-Amarna, in the form of numerous finds of semi-finished glass. The diagnostic microstructural and chemical composition of these finds is presented alongside macroscopically similar finds, of shapeless lumps of finished white glass. The semi-finished glass was found to contain numerous inclusions of residual quartz and newly formed lime-rich crystal phases, but no added colorant. However, several samples of semi-finished glass have antimony oxide levels comparable to those of finished white glass, suggesting that the opacifier was added to the initial glass-making batch. The results are discussed in comparison with the evidence for glass-making from Qantir – Pi-Ramesse, identifying some close technical similarities, which indicate that the same technological processes were used at both sites for the production of glass.