MANGANESE STAINING OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL GLASS: THE CHARACTERIZATION OF Mn-RICH INCLUSIONS IN LEACHED LAYERS AND A HYPOTHESIS OF ITS FORMATION

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Abstract

During the study of a large number of archaeological glass fragments, manganese-rich inclusions in leached layers were observed in a limited number of cases. This phenomenon occurs only in black-coloured leached layers. Since the formation mechanism of such manganese-rich inclusions is still unclear, a combination of several analytical techniques was used in order to investigate this phenomenon and, more specifically, to obtain more information on (a) the composition and morphology of the inclusions, (b) the chemical state of Mn and (c) the 3D morphology of the inclusions. A mechanism that might explain the formation of these inclusions is proposed.

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