This study reports the mineralogical and chemical characterization of the ceramic body of tiles created by Gabriel del Barco, an important tile painter in Lisbon from the 17th century. Six tile panels were studied: four are signed and two are attributed to the painter. The results obtained from the signed panels revealed that the samples have almost the same characteristics, with a magnesium-rich phase, meaning that the artist, or the pottery where the tiles were made, kept to the same manufacturing procedure over some time. In contrast to this, the results of samples from the masterpiece Vista de Lisboa showed some heterogeneity, as two patterns were observed. However, one of these patterns matches with the one observed in the signed tile panels. Although a more detailed study still needs to be done, these findings, together with historical sources linked to painting characteristics, suggest that Gabriel del Barco was also the author of the non-signed tiles.