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Late Antique coarse cooking wares and painted fine wares found at Herdonia (second half of the fourth century to mid-fifth century ad) and Canusium (late sixth century to early seventh century ad) have been chemically and mineralogically characterized. A total of 74 samples (40 of coarse ware and 34 of fine painted ware) was investigated through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence. A new statistical method, namely the classification tree methodology, was used for the treatment of geochemical data. The characterization of the Herdonia and Canusium assemblages was combined with a review of earlier results obtained for San Giusto and Posta Crusta, in order to get an insight on Late Antique ceramic trades in northern Apulia. It appears possible to reconstruct a production pattern organized at multiple production sites, both rural and urban, that exploited similar raw material deposits, specialized in certain productions, and commercialized products at different geographical scales. Imports from outside northern Apulia may be identified for coarse wares. A likely area of production is difficult to establish; however, the northern Adriatic coast and the area of Greece may be suggested.