Abstract: A new arthropod, Synophalos xynos gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Lower Cambrian of the Chengjiang Lagerstätte, Yunnan, China. It is provisionally assigned to Crustacea, Waptiida and Waptiidae. Just one example of an isolated individual of S. xynos is known. Typically, individuals of the new species occur together in similar, robustly integrated chain-like associations. Such a strongly linked configuration is apparently unique for any arthropod, fossil or living. The chain-like association is suggested to represent an example of collective behaviour, possibly associated with reproduction, or more likely migration.