• Cambrian;
  • South Australia;
  • palaeosol;
  • fungus;
  • slime mould;
  • lichen

Abstract:  Red calcareous Middle Cambrian palaeosols from the upper Moodlatana Formation in the eastern Flinders Ranges of South Australia formed in well-drained subhumid floodplains and include a variety of problematic fossils. The fossils are preserved like trace fossil endichnia but do not appear to be traces of burrows or other animal movement. They are here regarded as remains of sessile organisms, comparable with fungi or plants living in place, and are formally named as palaeobotanical form genera under provisions of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Most common are slender (0.5–2 mm) branching filaments flanked by green-grey reduction haloes within the red matrix of palaeosol surface horizons (Prasinema gracile gen. et sp. nov.). Other axial structures (Prasinema nodosum and P. adunatum gen. et spp. nov.) are larger and show distinctive surface irregularities (short protuberances and irregular striations, respectively). The size and form of these filaments are most like rhizines of soil-crust lichens. Other evidence of life on land includes quilted spheroids (Erytholus globosus gen. et sp. nov.) and thallose impressions (Farghera sp. indet.), which may have been slime moulds and lichens, respectively. These distinctive fossils in Cambrian palaeosols represent communities comparable with modern biological soil crusts.