Proterochampsa barrionuevoi (Archosauriformes: Proterochampsia) from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of Argentina and a phylogenetic analysis of Proterochampsia

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Abstract

Abstract:  Restudy of skulls and available postcrania of the proterochampsian archosauriform Proterochampsa barrionuevoi from the Ischigualasto Formation (Upper Triassic, Carnian) in the San Juan Province, Argentina, confirms that the genus is diagnosed by autapomorphies that include dermal sculpturing consisting of prominent ridges and nodular protuberances, a large hook-like lateral projection on the quadratojugal, an antorbital fossa restricted to a depression along the maxilla, lateral expansion of the premaxilla anterior to the premaxilla–maxilla contact, absence of a supratemporal fossa, exclusion of jugal from suborbital fenestra, basal tubera of parabasisphenoid facing ventrally and reaching laterally beyond the basipterygoid process, and a ventral lamina on the angular. Proterochampsa nodosa is a valid species distinguished from Pbarrionuevoi by fewer cranial ridges with larger protuberances, relatively smaller supratemporal fenestrae and width of frontals between orbits less than that of the nasals. A phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of Proterochampsia consisting of Proterochampsa, Chanaresuchus bonapartei, Gualosuchus reigi, Tropidosuchus romeri and Cerritosaurus binsfeldi. A temporal separation between the two basal proterochampsians with earliest records in the Late Triassic (Proterochampsa and Cerritosaurus) and Chanaresuchus, Gualosuchus and Tropidosuchus in the Middle Triassic indicates hidden proterochampsian diversity in the Middle Triassic.

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