We consider the effect of globalization on fertility, human capital, and growth. We view globalization as creating market opportunities for employment in less developed countries. We construct a specific model of household decision making, drawing on empirical observations in the development economics literature, and show that if the market opportunities produced by globalization are for women, then globalization reduces fertility and increases human capital formation. If the opportunities are for men, then fertility increases and human capital formation falls. We then show that globalization that produces job opportunities for women increases growth and produces a long run steady state with higher per capita consumption than would prevail either without globalization, or with globalization that creates jobs only for men.