Electoral institutions and campaigning in comparative perspective: Electioneering in European Parliament elections


Shaun Bowler, Department of Political Science, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. Email: Shaun.Bowler@ucr.edu


This article develops and tests a number of competing expectations (institutional, party and individual) about what influenced the campaign activity of individual parliamentary candidates for the 2004 European Parliament elections. The principal interest is in the effects of variations in the design of electoral institutions across the Member States of the European Union. Based on the analysis, it is argued that an important distinction needs to be made between campaign effort and campaign goals, with electoral institutional factors having a more significant role over the latter.