What New Knowledge Would Help Policymakers Better Balance Investments for Optimal Health Outcomes?


  • David Kindig,

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    • This paper was stimulated by discussion at a June 14–16, 2000, meeting in New York sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Milbank Memorial Fund. It was more fully developed on Jan 4, 2001, in Portland, Oregon, by the participants/authors.

  • Patricia Day,

  • Daniel M. Fox,

  • Mark Gibson,

  • James Knickman,

  • Jonathan Lomas,

  • Gregory Stoddart

  • Address correspondence to David Kindig, M.D., Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin Medical School, 760 WARF, 610 Walnut St., Madison, WI 53726-2397. Patricia Day is a Senior Research Fellow, Centre for the Analysis of Social Policy, Department of Social and Policy Sciences, the University of Bath, Bath, England. Daniel M. Fox is President, Milbank Memorial Fund, New York. Mark Gibson, M.D., is a Program Officer, Milbank Memorial Fund, New York. James Knickman, Ph.D., is Vice President for Research and Development, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, NJ. Jonathan Lomas is Executive Director, Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, Ottawa, ON. Gregory Stoddart is Professor of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University Health Science Centre, Hamilton, ON.


Objective: Review the limitations in cross-sectoral health outcomes research and suggest a future research agenda.

Data Sources, Study Design, Data Collection: Literature review and workshop discussion.

Principal Findings: The research evidence that would aid public and private policy makers in answering the question the title poses is quite limited.

Conclusions: Much more evidence from diverse disciplines is needed, and key areas are suggested. Criteria for progress by 2010 are proposed.